Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in india 2014,new diabetes drug once a week injection,analytische chemie m. otto,le diabete de type 2 peut il disparaitre - 2016 Feature

Type 1 diabetes may present at any age, but most typically presents in early life with a peak around the time of puberty. Type 1 diabetes has historically been most prevalent in populations of European origin, but is becoming more frequent in other ethnic groups. New cases of type 1 diabetes according to the IDF The incidence of type 1 diabetes remains relatively low in populations of non-European descent around the world, but many of these now report a rising incidence of the disease.
The incidence of type 1 diabetes reaches a peak at puberty, and declines rapidly thereafter.
An international survey of sex ratios in children presenting under the age of 15 years noted a minor male excess in Europe and populations of European origin, while a female excess was noted in populations of African or Asian origin.
I found this an interesting article especially the increase of juvenile Type 1 diabetes and the lower incidence in young adults.
As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. As coaches, we will likely have someone with diabetes come through our doors at any given gym.
Those with type 1 diabetes have an absolute deficiency of insulin cause by marked reduction in insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas. The cause of type 1 diabetes is thought to involve an autoimmune response in genetically susceptible individuals that affects the beta cells that leads to their destruction. It’s important to note that this type of diabetes usually appears before the age of thirty, but it can occur at any age.
Those with type 2 diabetes are considered to have a relative insulin deficiency, because they can have elevated, reduced, or normal insulin levels. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is still relatively unclear, but contributing factors include genetics, environment, insulin abnormalities, increased glucose production in the liver, increased fat breakdown, and defective hormonal secretions in the intestine.
The mechanisms underlying insulin resistance also remain unclear, although they likely involve defects in the binding of insulin to its receptor and postreceptor events, such as glucose transport.
Of the 20.6 million people diagnosed with diabetes, 90-95% are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Exercise enhances the absorption of exogenous insulin, so it’s important that a doctor be involved with any exercise for a type 1 diabetes patient. In regards to brief high-intensity or anaerobic activity, it can cause post-exercise hyperglycemia. According to the Canadian Journal of Diabetes, small amounts of anaerobic activity in the form of sprints or basic resistance exercises during aerobic exercise sessions may decrease the drop in blood glucose levels associated with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise.
Practical exercise programs should be given for those with type 1 diabetes, but there are a lot of risks in working with those with type 1 diabetes and the priority should always be keeping them safe. It’s important for exercise professionals to understand that diet and exercise go hand in hand for those with type 2 diabetes. Now, you may be wondering about the effectiveness of resistance training versus aerobic training, in that now we have many forms of exercise, be they CrossFit, endurance, powerlifting, or yoga. The study used a randomized control group with people with type 2 diabetes, with an age range of eighteen years or older. The important part of this study concluded that for type 2 diabetic patients using one or the other training method is less important than doing some form of physical activity.
Amber Larsen is a massage therapist, registered yoga teacher, biologist, CrossFit Level 1 trainer, CrossFit Gymnastics trainer, and kinesio tape practitioner.
Amber has been an athlete all of her life, playing soccer as a child until she finished college.
Free diabetic log sheets - type 2 diabetes guide, Free diabetic log sheets for blood glucose you know the importance of monitoring and keeping track of your blood free diabetic log sheets diabetes diet sheet.
Sample diabetes patient care flow sheet for adults, Sample diabetes patient care flow sheet for adults. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Normally blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insufficient production of insulin, production of defective insulin (which is uncommon), or the inability of cells to use insulin properly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia and diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes was also referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or adult onset diabetes mellitus (AODM). While it is said that type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in individuals over 30 years old and the incidence increases with age, we are seeing an alarming number patients with type 2 diabetes who are barely in their teen years. While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors – the most significant of which is obesity.
These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves ,and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels .Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease, angina or heart attack, strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply. To treat diabetic retinopathy a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels. The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels. Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels.
Diabetic nerve damage can affect the nerves that are important for penile erection, causing erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence). Diabetic neuropathy can also affect nerves to the stomach and intestines, causing nausea, weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms of gastroparesis (delayed emptying of food contents from the stomach into the intestines, due to ineffective contraction of the stomach muscles).
The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin) or carbamazapine (Tegretol) with topically applied capsaicin (an extract of pepper). Gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) are medications that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. The pain of diabetic nerve damage may also improve with better blood sugar control, though unfortunately blood glucose control and the course of neuropathy do not always go hand in hand.
The chart below gives you an idea of where your blood sugar level should be throughout the day. Its incidence varies 50–100-fold around the world, with the highest rates in northern Europe and in individuals of European extraction. Classification of diabetes becomes more problematic in older age groups, and there are therefore no accurate estimates of incidence over the age of 40 years. High incidence populations are characterised by male excess, and low incidence populations by female excess.[3] In contrast, clear male preponderance has emerged from most studies of patients with type 1 diabetes diagnosed at 15–40 years.
While many children may have died from undiagnosed diabetes, contemporary reports are consistent in suggesting that western populations had a low and relatively constant rate of the disease over the first half of the century at levels equivalent to those seen today in parts of southern Asia. In the US the FDA has just given approval for clinical trials using BCG vaccine to lower incidence of Type 1 diabetes. Millions of adults currently from both diagnosed and unrecognized insulin resistance and the side effects of Type 2 diabetes. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. There are different types of diabetes, but we will specifically speak about type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The nature of the genetic influence in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is unclear, but the human lymphocyte antigen types DR3 and DR4 are associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes.
Of the 20.8 million people with diabetes in the United States only 5-10% have type 1 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes, peripheral tissue insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion are common features. Since the majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese at the time of onset, obesity is considered a significant contributor to insulin resistance.


Since type 1 diabetes patients are on insulin therapy, either by syringe or an insulin pump, adjustments in dosage, careful blood glucose monitoring, and attention to diet at the time of exercise are needed to prevent hypoglycemia. But it’s important to mention these theories are still being tested, so as a trainer, always err on the side of caution.
A six-year clinical trial evaluated the effects of diet and exercise lifestyle interventions on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The duration of the trial was eight weeks with a predetermined frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
It’s important that whatever exercise program someone with type 2 diabetes chooses, it will be the one that is right for them. In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood. Type 1 diabetes was also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes, patients can still produce insulin, but do so relatively inadequately for their body’s needs. In fact, for the first time in the history of humans, type 2 diabetes is now more common than type 1 diabetes in childhood.
There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults. In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal. Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes, and 80% of diabetics have retinopathy after 15 years of the disease.
It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in diabetic patients.
In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Erectile dysfunction can also be caused by poor blood flow to the penis from diabetic blood vessel disease. Newer medications for nerve pain have recently come to market .Pregabalin (Lyrica) which has an indication for diabetic neuropathic pain and duloxetine (Cymbalta) are newer agents used in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and how to control these day-to-day factors. After all, keeping your blood sugar level within your target range can help you live a long and healthy life with diabetes. Too little food in comparison to your diabetes medications — especially insulin — may result in dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This is especially important if you’ve been inactive and plan to start exercising regularly.
If you take insulin, you may need to adjust your insulin dose before exercising or wait a few hours to exercise after injecting insulin. Check your blood sugar level before, during and after exercise, especially if you take insulin or medications that can cause low blood sugar.
If your diabetes medications cause your blood sugar level to drop too low, the dosage or timing may need to be adjusted. If you’re considering an over-the-counter medication or your doctor prescribes a new drug to treat another condition — such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol — ask your doctor or pharmacist if the medication may affect your blood sugar level.
Knowing your blood sugar levels allows you to alter your diabetes management strategy if your levels aren’t near your target blood sugar. The traditional method of testing your blood sugar involves pricking your finger with a lancet (a small, sharp needle), putting a drop of blood on a test strip and then placing the strip into a meter that displays your blood sugar level.
Your ideal blood sugar range may be different from another person’s and will change throughout the day. Hemoglobin A1c provides an average of your blood sugar control over a six to 12 week period and is used in conjunction with home blood sugar monitoring to make adjustments in your diabetes medicines.
Your regular diabetes checkups aren’t meant to replace yearly physicals or routine eye exams. Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly can go a long way toward controlling high blood pressure and cholesterol.
Smoking increases your risk of various diabetes complications, including heart attack, stroke, nerve damage and kidney disease. Alcohol can cause either high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and if you eat at the same time. Both sexes are equally affected in childhood, but men are more commonly affected in early adult life. A subgroup of individuals with develop diabetes in later life with clinical features of type 2 diabetes but test positive for GAD autoantibodies.
It will be more common for trainers to come in contact with someone with type 2 diabetes than with type 1. Those with type 1 diabetes are prone to developing ketoacidosis (high levels of ketones) when low insulin levels result in hyperglycemia. With insulin resistance, glucose does not readily enter the insulin sensitive tissues (think muscle and adipose tissue) and blood glucose rises. Some information from the Canadian Journal of Diabetes is that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise increases the risk of hypoglycemia because of more rapid circulation. For these reasons, a doctor should be well aware of what types of exercise the patient is doing in case any adjustments need to be made.
There are many professionals who work with patients with well-controlled type 1 diabetes who wish to exercise for a better quality of life. In the study, 577 men and women were assigned to one of four groups: control, diet only, exercise only, or both diet and exercise. In the study, both aerobic exercises and resistance exercise were recommended treatments for those with type 2 diabetes, but researchers wanted to find the optimum type of exercise for those with the disease. The conclusion of the study found that even though there were some physical fitness differences between the aerobic and resistance groups, the differences were of no clinical importance. For exercise professionals, it’s important for you to understand how to modify movements for type 2 diabetes patients new to exercise and how to make the best nutrition plan for them in order to improve their quality of life. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level.
Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for the proper functioning of the body cells.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is rendered incapable of making insulin.
In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin. Most of these cases are a direct result of poor eating habits, higher body weight, and lack of exercise. It is estimated that the chance to develop diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight. After the person has fasted overnight (at least 8 hours), a single sample of blood is drawn and sent to the laboratory for analysis. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. Diseased small blood vessels in the back of the eye cause the leakage of protein and blood in the retina.


Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities.
Eating about the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal or snack will help keep your blood sugar level steady throughout the day. And any medications you take for conditions other than diabetes can affect your blood sugar level, too. Meters vary in features, readability (with larger displays or spoken instructions for the visually impaired), portability, speed, size, and cost. Keep a glucagon kit nearby in case of a low blood sugar emergency — and make sure your friends and loved ones know how to use it. During the physical, your doctor will look for any diabetes-related complications, as well as screen for other medical problems. In fact, smokers who have diabetes are three times more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than are nonsmokers who have diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association.
The hormones your body may produce in response to prolonged stress may prevent insulin from working properly, which only makes matters worse. The distinction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes becomes blurred in later life, and the true lifetime incidence of the condition is therefore unknown.
Statistics for the worldwide incidence of type 1 diabetes in children are available via the IDF Atlas. As a group, these individuals are leaner and more likely to progress to insulin therapy, but there is controversy as to whether they represent a distinct subtype of diabetes or merely the tail-end of the distribution of type 1 diabetes within the population.
Could there be a correlation between discontinuing the vaccine and the rise juvenile diabetes. When blood glucose rises, the beta cells of the pancreas being to secrete more insulin to try to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations. Insulin therapy may or may not be required, depending on the degree of functional insulin, or insulin sensitive or responsiveness (or both), remaining. In some cases, patients on pump therapy may need to decrease bolus doses by 20-50%, and may choose to discontinue basal insulin during exercise.
You must keep in contact with the patient’s physician for them to make these insulin changes. It was proven that exercise combined with diet decreased the incidence of diabetes after the six-year intervention.
So there is really no evidence that resistance training greatly differs from aerobic exercise in regards to the impact on cardiovascular risks or safety.
In patients with diabetes, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia. Carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine and the glucose in digested food is then absorbed by the intestinal cells into the bloodstream, and is carried by the bloodstream to all the cells in the body where it is utilized. In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body (particularly fat and muscle cells).
Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion. Disease in these blood vessels also causes the formation of small aneurysms , and new but brittle blood vessels. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Simply eating about the same amount of food at about the same time every day can help you control your blood sugar level. Stop exercising if you experience any warning signs, such as severe shortness of breath, dizziness or chest pain. Current devices provide results in less than 15 seconds and can store this information for future use.
Establish a relationship with a diabetes educator, and ask your diabetes treatment team for help when you need it.
It should be noted that the young adult population with a lower incidence also received the BCG vaccine at birth. Unfortunately, this is usually not effective for lowering blood glucose and may further contribute to insulin resistance. Those with type 2 diabetes do not develop ketoacidosis unless under conditions of unusual stress, such as some sort of trauma. These numbers are simply here to give the exercise professional an idea of insulin fluctuations.
Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
However, glucose cannot enter the cells alone and needs insulin to aid in its transport into the cells. When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin released from the pancreas is turned down.
Spontaneous bleeding from the new and brittle blood vessels can lead to retinal scarring and retinal detachment, thus impairing vision. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required. The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes is rising rapidly in all populations, especially in the under 5-year-old age group, with a doubling time of less than 20 years in Europe. Without insulin, the cells become starved of glucose energy despite the presence of abundant glucose in the bloodstream. In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range.
Therefore, low blood sugar can lead to central nervous symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, weakness and tremors. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. But even light activities — such as housework, gardening or being on your feet for extended periods — can lower your blood sugar level. Some meters also feature software kits that retrieve information from the meter and display graphs and charts of your past test results.
Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that doesn’t start to heal within a few days. The increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes suggests a major environmental contribution, but the role of specific factors such as viruses remains controversial.
In patients with diabetes, the insulin is either absent, relatively insufficient for the body’s needs, or not used properly by the body. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.
Your health care provider will tell you when and how often you should check your blood sugar.



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