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This eMedTV page explains why many people may need to take more than one kind of insulin diabetes educator jobs au and describes how these various forms of insulin work. An early cause of insulin resistance in liver disease diagnosis of diabetes can get you on a proper treatment program so your kidneys can continue to work effectively. Ever since her attack Halle has injected herself with insulin three times a day to keep her blood sugar levels steady. I love that it’s so large mainly because I can pour a 12oz can of soda into it in 1 shot and the fizz will go all the way to the top of the cup but not overflow!
The resource may also contain words and descriptions that could be culturally sensitive and which might not normally be used in public or community contexts. This Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health provides a plain language summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, with brief information about the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, health problems and common risk factors. For more information about Indigenous health status, please access the HealthInfoNet's Overview of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health status. Information has been drawn from up-to-date sources to create a picture of the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia (including information for the states and territories: New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic), Queensland (Qld), Western Australia (WA), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (Tas), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). Sources include government reports, particularly those produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).
An important issue when collecting health information is to make sure that it is accurate and reliable.
To create a complete picture, all the information in this Summary should be looked at in the context of the social determinants of health, the term used to talk about factors that affect people's lives, including their health [2][3][4][5]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are generally worse off than non-Indigenous people when it comes to the social determinants of health [2][3][4][5]. Many health services are not as accessible and user-friendly for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as they are for non-Indigenous people, adding to higher levels of disadvantage. Based on information from the 2011 Census, the ABS estimates that there were 729,048 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in Australia in 2015 (Table 1) [6]. In 2015, around one-third of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in major cities, and almost one half lived in inner and outer regional areas [6].
The number of Indigenous people counted in the 2011 Census was much higher than the number counted in the 2006 Census [8][9]. In 2011, 90% of Indigenous people identified as Aboriginal, 6% identified as Torres Strait Islanders and 4% identified as both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander [10].
Figure 1 is a population pyramid; it shows a comparison of the age profiles of the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations [11]. In 2014, there were 17,779 births registered in Australia where one or both parents were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (six in every 100 births) [12]. In 2013, babies born to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers weighed an average of 3,200 grams, 161 grams less than those born to non-Indigenous mothers [13]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are much more likely than non-Indigenous people to die before they are old [14][15]. In 2014, there were 2,914 deaths registered for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people [14].
Babies born to Indigenous women are almost twice as likely to die in their first year as those born to non-Indigenous women [14]. More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (14%) reported having CVD than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men (11%) in 2012-2013 [22].
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were almost twice as likely to be admitted to hospital for CVD than other Australians in 2013-14 [24].
CVD was the leading cause of death of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 2013, being responsible for 24% of the deaths in this population in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT [16]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are more likely to die from CVD at younger ages than non-Indigenous people. Cancer is a term used for a variety of diseases that cause damage to the body's cells (the basic building blocks of the body) [26][27]. In 2005-2009, the overall rate of new cases (incidence rate) of cancer was slightly lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people [28]. In 2012-2013, the hospitalisation rate for cancer for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was lower than for non-Indigenous people (10 and 15 per 1,000 respectively) [29].
The cancer death rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 1.3 times higher than for non-Indigenous people in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT in 2013 [16]. Diabetes is a group of disorders in which the body does not convert glucose (a type of sugar found in many foods) into energy [33]. There are several types of diabetes, but the most common are type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy) [33][36]. Diabetes was reported by 9% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people1 in the 2012-2013 AATSIHS [21][41]. According to the 2012-2013 AATSIHS, diabetes was more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas (13%) than for those living in non-remote areas (8%) [23].
General practitioners (GPs) are usually the first point of contact for people with diabetes and they often coordinate other health professionals who are needed to manage the condition [43]. In 2012-13, there were 2,749 hospital separations for diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia [45].
Diabetes was responsible for 202 deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT in 2013 [16][25]. What is known about the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people?
Measuring social and emotional wellbeing is difficult, but it usually relies on self-reported feelings (like happiness or calmness) or 'stressors' (stressful events in a person's life). The 2012-13 AATSIHS collected information on positive wellbeing and asked people to report on feelings of happiness, calmness and peacefulness, fullness of life, and energy levels [46].
However, the survey found that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults were almost three times more likely to feel high or very high levels of psychological distress than non-Indigenous adults [47]. The WAACHS also found that seven-in-ten Aboriginal children were living in families that had experienced three or more major life stress events (like a death in the family, serious illness, family breakdown, financial problems, or arrest) in the year before the survey, and two-in-ten had experienced seven or more major stress events [50].
The Footprints in time: longitudinal study of Indigenous children found that Indigenous boys had more behavioural and emotional difficulty than Indigenous girls [51]. Healthy kidneys help the body by removing waste and extra water, and keeping the blood clean and chemically balanced [54].
Kidney disease is a serious health problem for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. ESRD affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people when they are much younger compared with non-Indigenous people.
The rates of ESRD were highest for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in the NT (20 times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than non-Indigenous people) and WA (11 times higher) [6][57][58][59]. Note: Rates show how many Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander and non-Indigenous people had ESRD per million.
Dialysis was the most common reason for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to be admitted to hospital in 2013-14 [44]. In 2008-2012, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were almost three times more likely to die from kidney disease than non-Indigenous people [45]. Everyday life situations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can affect the types of injuries and the frequency of injuries experienced. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more likely than other Australians to be admitted to hospital for injuries in 2013-14 [52].
In 2013, injury was the third most common cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT [16].
What is known about respiratory health in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population? The respiratory system includes all the parts of the body involved with breathing, including the nose, throat, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe) and lungs [63]. Risk factors for respiratory disease include: infections, smoking (including passive smoking, which is particularly bad for children), poor environmental conditions (especially areas that are dusty or have lots of pollen or pollution), poor living conditions, and other diseases (like diabetes, heart and kidney disease) [63][64].
Respiratory disease was reported by around one-third of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the 2012-2013 AATSIHS [65].
In 2012-13, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were four times more likely than non-Indigenous people to be admitted into hospital for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, three times more likely to be admitted for influenza and pneumonia, and nearly twice as likely to be admitted for asthma [45]. In 2013, respiratory disease was the cause of 8% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths in NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT [16]. Healthy eyes are important for everyday life; they are needed to read and study, play sports, drive vehicles and work [66]. Eye health is affected by getting older, smoking, injuries, exposure to ultra-violet (UV) light from the sun, and not eating enough healthy food [68].
In 2012-2013, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were slightly less likely to report eye and sight problems than non-Indigenous adults [65], but they were more than seven times as likely to report blindness [65] and almost three times as likely to report sight problems caused by diabetes [44]. Trachoma still occurs among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in some remote communities in the NT, WA and SA [75]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, especially children and young adults, have more ear disease and hearing loss than other Australians [77][78]. In 2012-13, the hospitalisation rate for diseases of the ear and mastoid process for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0-3 years was slightly lower than for non-Indigenous children and the rate for those aged 4-14 years was 1.6 times higher than for non-Indigenous children [45]. The oral health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is not as good as that of non-Indigenous people [82]. The oral health of young non-Indigenous children has improved in recent years, but the oral health of young Indigenous children has generally become worse.
Around one-in-three Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children under 14 years reported having oral health problems in the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS) [53]. Disability may affect how a person moves around and looks after themselves, how they learn, or how they communicate [85][86].
In 2012, about a quarter of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had a disability [87]. What is known about communicable diseases in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population?
Improvements to personal and environmental cleanliness, and the introduction of new immunisations (vaccines), have greatly reduced the number of people who catch some communicable diseases [38]. Tuberculosis notifications were 11 times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people in 2009-2013 [90][91][92][93][94][95]. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an infection of the liver mainly caused by eating contaminated food or water or by direct contact with an infected person [97][98] (including sexual contact, particularly between men) [97].
While the exact causes of diabetes are still not known, the conditions that characterize diabetes are pretty well agreed upon and symptoms are largely the same.
Any physical activity requires more energy and the body cells actively take up more sugar from the blood stream. In order to try and understand the causes of diabetes, first the action of insulin on the body must be understood. Type I Diabetes is caused due to insulin deficiency which occurs due to destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility and heredity are also causes of Type I Diabetes and some individuals are more prone to developing the condition than others [5]. People who are genetically susceptible to developing Type I Diabetes may become diabetic when triggered by environmental factors like diet, viruses, and toxins.
While a virus or an infection cannot trigger Type I Diabetes on their own, there has often been a link which suggests that certain factors can trigger the condition in individuals who are already at the risk of developing the disease [4]. There is active research being carried out in order to develop a vaccine which can help individuals fight these pathogens.
Infants, who face improper feeding practices, such as the early or late introduction of cereal to the diet, or an early exposure to cow’s milk rather than mother’s milk are at a higher risk of developing Type I Diabetes.
Type I Diabetes mellitus can also be controlled or corrected by intake of insulin as a curative measure. Type II Diabetes is caused due to a number of factors like insulin resistance, where the body’s muscle, fat, and liver cells become ineffective to use up all the insulin.
Type II Diabetes is more prevalent than Type I Diabetes as it is found in almost 90% of the total diabetic cases whereas less than 10% of diabetics suffer from Type I Diabetes.
Genetic studies reveal that some specific variants of genes can cause individuals to be at a higher risk of developing Type II Diabetes. Genes may also influence how much a person weighs and obesity is also thought to be caused by genes. A sedentary lifestyle, especially among the elderly, is also associated with Type II diabetes.
In some special cases, the liver of individuals proves to produce excess amounts of glucose, even when the body does not require sugar.
Type II Diabetes can also be caused because of a dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas [3].
Sometimes, the process in which cells regulate their communication and signaling is also affected and there is an improper channel of communication. Type II Diabetes can be reversed by medications that may either reduce the glucose production by liver or by increasing the sensitivity to insulin. Gestational diabetes is exclusively associated with pregnant females especially in their third trimester who had never suffered from diabetes previously [2]. Gestational Diabetes can occur in women due to dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas or a resistance being developed by the body in response to insulin. Women who have a family history of any kind of diabetes are also at a higher risk of encountering the disease.


Pregnant women who are diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes are also at a higher risk of contracting both prediabetes and Type II Diabetes in the future.
The causes of prediabetes are generally considered to be the same as the causes of Type II Diabetes [1]. Genetic mutations may cause the beta cells of the pancreas to dysfunction and more often than not, such mutations occur spontaneously.
In some cases, damage done to the pancreas, including damage caused by any surgery to organs around the pancreas can also trigger the onset of some types of diabetes. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our [my_terms_of_service_and_privacy_policy]. About 285 million around the world suffer from diabetes, making it the fifth leading cause of death. Diabetes costs the US more than $174 billion, of which $116 billion is spent on medical treatment and $58 billion is lost due to lowered productivity. The carbohydrates that a person consumes are converted to glucose, which helps fuel the body.
Insulin resistance is a syndrome that is commonly discovered to be an issue in those that suffer from diabetic conditions such as Type 2 diabetes.
There are three main types of diabetes Type 2 Diabetes: Accounting for 90 to 95 percent of those with diabetes type 2 is he most common form.
Fist here is a typical note for an established patient let’s call him Joe (obviously not a real patient name) It is made with good quality material which drives the price up.
A forum where UK diabetics can exchange information and support about all aspects of diabetes diabetes log pdf and its treatment. This amazing health supplement may lower blood glucose which can also help individuals who are suffering from diabetes mellitus. It started with me going to a college 2 hours away and then I got stuck in a boring public speaking class. Protein is an essential nutrient but does increasing your protein intake improve your blood sugar levels?
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Data for these reports are collected through health surveys, by hospitals and by doctors across Australia. Sometimes this is because more Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than non-Indigenous live in remote locations and not all health services are offered outside of cities.
One-fifth of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population lived in remote and very remote areas. In 2011, more than one-third of Indigenous people were younger than 15 year of age (compared with one-fifth of non-Indigenous people) [11]. Overall, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women had more children and had them when they were younger than non-Indigenous women. About three-quarters of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers were 30 years or younger when they had their babies, compared with less than one-half of non-Indigenous mothers [12].
Babies born to Indigenous mothers were almost twice as likely to be of low birthweight (less than 2,500 grams) than babies born to non-Indigenous mothers. The most recent estimates from the ABS show that an Indigenous boy born in 2010-2012 was likely to live to 69 years, about 10 years less than a non-Indigenous boy (who could expect to live to 80 years) (Figure 2) [15]. Many Indigenous deaths are incorrectly counted as non-Indigenous because the person or family are not identified as Indigenous – the actual number of Indigenous deaths is not known, but would be higher than the number registered as such.
In 2012-2014, of the Indigenous infant mortality rates for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, the highest were in the NT and lowest in NSW. The most common types of CVD are coronary heart disease (including heart attack), stroke, heart failure and high blood pressure [18]. One-in-eight (13%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported in the 2012-2013 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey (AATSIHS) that they had some form of CVD [21]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas were more likely to report having heart disease than those living in non-remote areas [23].
There were more deaths from ischaemic heart disease  (affecting blood supply to the heart) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men than among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. In 2010-12 in NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 35-44 years were 10 times more likely to die from coronary heart disease (the leading cause of CVD-related deaths) than non-Indigenous people of the same age [24]. Normally cells grow and multiply in a controlled way but cancer causes cells to grow and multiply in an uncontrolled way. This leads to high sugar levels in the blood which can cause serious health problems including: heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations, eye disease and blindness [34][35]. The level of diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was more than three times higher than for non-Indigenous people [42]. Diabetes affected Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at a younger age than non-Indigenous people and increased with age – from 5% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 25-34 years, up to 40% of those aged 55 years and over (Figure 3) [42]. In the period 2008 to 2013, diabetes was managed in 5% of sessions between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients and GPs [44]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were four times more likely to be hospitalised for diabetes than non-Indigenous people. Diabetes2 was the second leading cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Mental health describes how a person thinks and feels, and how they cope with and take part in everyday life.
The survey found that most (nine-in-ten) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people felt happy some, most, or all of the time [45].
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may have higher levels of psychological distress because they experience more stressful events than non-Indigenous people. Almost seven-in-ten Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experienced one or more significant stressors in the year before the survey, which was almost one-and-a-half-times higher than experienced by the total Australian population [49]. Compared with the non-Indigenous population, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were one-and-a-half times more likely to die from these disorders.
In 2010-2014, ESRD was nearly seven times more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people [6][57][58][59]. In 2010-2014, almost 60% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who were diagnosed with kidney disease were younger than 55 years (about 30% of non-Indigenous people were younger than 55 years) (Figure 4) [6][57][58][59]. Dialysis can be undertaken at hospitals, special out-of-hospital satellite units, or in the home (which requires special equipment and training for the patient and their carers, and is very costly) [56].
Injury was the second most common reason for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander hospital admissions. The most common causes of injury-related death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were suicide and transport accidents. Respiratory disease occurs if any of these parts of the body are damaged or diseased and breathing is affected. Respiratory problems were reported more often by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than men. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to die from a respiratory disease.
Eye problems can result in vision loss (not being able to see properly) which can be improved with glasses, contact lenses or eye surgery [70].
The overall level of trachoma in these communities has reduced from 14% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2014.
Caries is caused by bacteria that decay (break down) the enamel (hard outer part of the tooth); if caries is not treated the tooth will continue to decay and will eventually have to be removed [81]. In 2004-2006, Indigenous adults had more than twice as much caries as non-Indigenous adults, and three times the number of decayed tooth surfaces [83].
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have more caries in their deciduous (baby) and permanent (adult) teeth than non-Indigenous children and their caries are often more severe [82][84].
Indigenous people had higher rates of disabilities than non-Indigenous people across all age groups and for both males and females. They can be spread through the air, such as when an infected person coughs or sneezes and another person breathes in the air that contains the germs. Data from state and territory collections are collected and published by the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS), but Indigenous status is often not reported for large proportions of notifications. Hepatitis A notifications have decreased a lot among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people since 2000. It is characterized by an increase in the blood glucose levels which may be either due to insufficient production of insulin, the inability of body cells to use insulin properly or due to production of defective insulin depending upon the type of diabetes. While researches still debate on the exact causes of the disorder, many argue that genetic factors, including the presence of some form of the disease in the history of the family, combined with some special triggers such as some specific environmental factors can lead to individuals developing the condition.
It is the substance which is carried to all parts of the body via the blood and is absorbed by the cells of the body.
As the level of glucose in the blood stream decreases, the regulation of the hormone insulin helps to keep the levels in check in order to provide the necessary energy to different parts of the body. It is an autoimmune disease caused due to self-destruction of beta cells by the body’s own defense cells.
These genes, which are passed down in a family through generations can determine whether a member will develop the condition in the future.
However, the exact mechanism or the nature by which this process is triggered is still not known. Type II Diabetes occurs when the body is no longer able to produce enough insulin as a compensatory mechanism. Type II Diabetes develops commonly in middle-aged and old people and more often in overweight or obese individuals. However, only a few of these gene variants have been identified and the majority of these are still to be discovered. Obesity can also greatly increase a person’s susceptibility to developing Type II Diabetes. Such people, if they are also genetically susceptible to the disease are much more vulnerable to the condition. In such conditions, the sugar rapidly builds up in the blood stream and the effect of insulin is no enough to counter these levels.
Any impairment of these cells causes abnormal amounts of insulin to be released into the blood stream and this process results in a higher concentrations of blood sugar. In such cases, the some proteins and other specific substances affect the sensitivity of insulin to the body. It can also be controlled or prevented in susceptible individuals by modifying the lifestyles such as by taking up physical exercises, by diet modification (by replacing saturated fats and trans fatty acids with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids) to control obesity. As with Type II Diabetes and prediabetes, Gestational Diabetes is also more frequently associated with obese people and people who are overweight. This again, suggests that heredity and genes play a major role in determining diabetes in an individual.
While Gestational Diabetes is a non-chronic condition and the blood sugar levels in the mother’s body return to normal shortly after child birth, care will always need to be taken throughout the life of the individual in order to prevent the onset of the chronic disease. In this condition, the cells of the body become resistant to the action of insulin on the body, and this leads to a buildup of the sugar levels in the blood stream.
For instance gene mutations, Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus (MRDM) or injuries and defects in pancreas can lead to any form of chronic and non-chronic diabetes being diagnosed in an individual. Some known genetic diseases such as Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome and also Down syndrome are also associated with cases of diabetes and active research is being carried out in order to determine a definitive genetic link between all of these disorders. Even developing nations are coping with this disease, which can take a toll on the healthcare system and national productivity. The pancreas is responsible for maintaining blood sugar by releasing insulin into the blood as and when required. About 79 million people in the US are prediabetes and more than 18 million have been diagnosed with the disease. If traveling to Europe, take a European health insurance to get coverage in the country of your travel. In a recent study conducted by Henry Ford Hospital, it was found that women between the ages of 60 and 75 who have managed to bring their diabetes under control had better hearing compared to women that did not have their diabetes under control. Fast foods taste good, are convenient to eat and quick to prepare, but they have low nutritional value, contain a lot of calories and are high in sugar, fats, calories and additives. However, before the piercing ensure that your blood sugar levels are under control, as this will reduce the chances of infection and poor healing.
Gestational Diabetes Log Sheet zoltar gave me fail lottery numbers Running time approximately 4 minutes.
Learn about some autoimmune diseases the symptoms the causes and some possible natural remedies. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Frier 2013 86 Pages ISBN: 1447147596 PDF 1 MB The key to this is an innovative strategy for drug delivery called Gestational Diabetes Log Sheet Insulin Potentiation Therapy (IPT). But there are ways to address Insulin Resistance the underlying cause of these conditions and PCOS symptoms. I am pursuing a startup and will possibly be talking with some venture capatalists in my state. The cumulative effect could cause serious health problems that could be irreversible before you have symptoms.
Describes pre-diabetes and the three types of diabetes as well as laboratory tests used to diagnose and monitor diabetes Search Help?


You can also find more wallpapers with Food Web Diagram pictures by selecting one of the related wallpapers in any category below. The HealthInfoNet respects such culturally sensitive issues, but, for technical reasons, it has not been possible to provide materials in a way that prevents access by a person of the other gender. The information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is getting better, but there are still limitations. Sometimes health services are not culturally appropriate (which means they do not consider Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures and the specific needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people). The NT had the highest percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in its population. Almost 3.5% of Indigenous people were 65 years or older, compared with 14% of non-Indigenous people. Around 17% of Indigenous mothers were teenagers, compared with 2.5% of non-Indigenous mothers. An Indigenous girl born in 2010-2012 is likely to live to 74 years, which is almost 10 years less than a non-Indigenous girl (who is likely to live to 83 years). Risk factors (behaviours or characteristics that makes it more likely for a person to get a disease) for CVD include: smoking, high blood cholesterol, being overweight, not eating well, being physically inactive and having diabetes [19][20]. CVD was 1.2 times more common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people [22]. In every age group except for males aged 75 and over, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more likely to be hospitalised than non-Indigenous people. In contrast, cerebrovascular disease (affecting blood vessels supplying the brain) caused more deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men [25]. If these damaged cells spread into surrounding areas or to different parts of the body, they are known as malignant. However, type 2 diabetes is a serious health problem for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who tend to develop it earlier and often die from it at a younger age than non-Indigenous people.
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (10%) reported having diabetes than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men (8%) [22]. Diabetes was managed about 3 times more often among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients than among other patients.
The overall death rate was six times higher for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people. Around eight-in-ten Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported feeling calm and peaceful, full of life, and that they had a lot of energy some, most, or all of the time. There were differences between men and women with more women reporting high levels of psychological distress than males. Deaths from intentional self-harm were especially high for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people younger than 35 years of age, particularly for men. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were admitted to hospital for dialysis around 10 times more often than other Australians [24]. Accessing dialysis can sometimes be very difficult for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who live in rural or remote locations and they may have to travel to receive treatment. The main causes of Indigenous injury-related hospital admissions were medical complications, falls and assault. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more than twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to die from suicide and more than twice as likely to die from traffic accidents. Common types of respiratory disease include colds and similar viral infections, asthma and pneumonia. Asthma (the respiratory condition most often reported by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) was nearly twice as common for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than for non-Indigenous people. It has been suggested that targeted screening, treatment and health promotion programs have contributed to the decrease in the level of trachoma [76]. OM can be very painful and sometimes damages the ear drum; fluid can also leak from the ear (known as 'runny ear'). Also, they may not be able to eat a variety of healthy foods or talk to other people comfortably.
Caries is caused by eating a lot of sticky and sweet foods that allow bacteria to grow and multiply. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults also suffered from more periodontal disease than non-Indigenous adults. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have more decayed, missing and filled teeth than non-Indigenous children. Children in non-remote areas were more likely to have oral health problems than those in remote areas. Indigenous children aged 0-14 years were more than twice as likely as non-Indigenous children to have a disability.
In 2011-2013, five Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were identified with Hepatitis A [99][100][101].
Glucose is obtained by the body through the process of digestion and is carried out by the liver. Insulin is responsible for regulating the way in which the cells of the body absorb glucose from the blood stream. Latent auto-immune diabetes (LADA) is also found in adults and is often mistaken as Type II diabetes. While some theories suggest that these factors aid in the destruction of the beta cells, some other theories seem to suggest that these factors play a longer and ongoing role in the condition. In such cases, metformin is often prescribed to control the high concentrations of sugar in the blood.
Just like Type II Diabetes, even Gestational Diabetes occurs due to inadequate insulin secretion as well as decreased responsiveness to insulin. Gene variants, as also a combination of gene variants can prove to cause Gestational Diabetes in some women. Endocrine diseases which affect the release of hormones might cause improper amounts of insulin being released into the blood stream.
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Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death among people, but with proper lifestyle and dietary habits, it can be prevented as well as controlled. However, it is the island of Nauru that has the highest incidence of diabetes in the world, with 30 percent of its population suffering from the disease. In 2010, about 1,900,000 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed among people aged 20 years and above. Foods with high glycemic index are bad carbs, while foods with low glycemic index are considered good carbohydrates.
Always take a travel insurance that covers diabetes and any specialist equipment that your condition may require. In the US, 66 percent of Hispanics are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes, with more than 90 percent Hispanics are either at risk of getting the disease or already have diabetes. About 1 in 10 people in the US have some degree of hearing loss; and less than 15 percent doctors ask diabetics whether they are facing any hearing loss. According to research, regular consumption of fast food causes insulin resistance, which can result in Type II diabetes. While you can get any body part pierced, refrain from sites that go not get adequate blood, such as ankles, buttocks and shins. To start during the second trimester normally around your 23rd week of pregnancy your doctor will give you a blood test to determine your blood glucose level. In fact intensive therapy achieved with multiple daily injections or an insulin pump has been shown to reduce the onset and progression of diabetes complications by upto 76%. Also, some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may not be able to use some services because they are too expensive.
The Indigenous pyramid is wide at the bottom (younger age-groups) and narrow at the top (older age-groups); this shape shows that the Indigenous population is a young population. Around one-in-twenty (6%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people reported having high blood pressure (hypertensive heart disease) [22]. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were 1.6 times more likely to die from ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases than non-Indigenous people. GDM develops in some women during pregnancy [38] and is more common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women than among non-Indigenous women [39].
People living in non-remote areas reported higher levels of psychological distress than those in remote areas [45]. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is when the kidneys have totally or almost totally stopped working.
In another type of OM, fluid builds up in the middle ear without damaging the ear drum ('glue ear'). Gum disease (also known as periodontal disease) is caused by bacteria that attack the gums causing them to swell and bleed. More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults than non-Indigenous adults suffered from edentulism (losing all of their teeth), especially at younger ages. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people had a higher overall need for assistance compared with non-Indigenous people (63% compared with 60%) and were almost twice as likely to require assistance with communication compared with non-Indigenous people (11% compared with 6.6%).
When the food is being digested, excess amounts of glucose are also stored by the liver in the form of glycogen. In cases of diabetes, the sensitivity of the body to insulin is greatly hindered and the cells of the body are unable to effectively absorb sugar from the blood stream. Heredity gas a major role to play in Type 1 diabetes as it is passed on from one generation to other through genes. Various studies have been done all over the world to prove that Type II Diabetes is caused due to obesity and physical inactivity in the youth today. Research is actively being conducted in this area in order to determine how exactly this process is associated with the development of Type II Diabetes in an individual. In most of the cases of gestational diabetes, it is corrected after the delivery but in some cases it may continue to occur. While both have similar symptoms, Type 1 develops quickly and Type II takes years to manifest itself.
Diabetics should look to get about 40 to 45 percent of their calories from carbohydrates, which are present in practically all foods.
If you are carrying your injection and other sharp-objects, carry a letter from your doctors, so that you will not face a problem while boarding the plane.
According to available statistics, nearly 12 percent Hispanics aged 20 and above have diabetes. If the pierced site gets infected, it is because the diabetes is not under control or proper piercing methods were not followed. However humans never cease to suprise Diabetes type-2 Insulin resistance Diabetes type-2 Metabolic syndrome. Services are provided by Certified Diabetes Educators (CDE’s) who are registered nurses and registered dietitians who have special training and experience in caring for people with diabetes.
For many Indigenous people, diabetes is not diagnosed until after complications have developed [40].
People who were educated to year 12 experienced less distress than people educated to year 9, and employed people were half as likely to experience distress as unemployed people [48]. People with ESRD must either have regular dialysis (use a machine that filters the blood) or have a kidney transplant to stay alive [56]. If gum disease is not treated, the gums start to break down and the teeth will become loose because the gums won't be strong enough to hold them in place.
When the body requires more glucose, the liver breaks up the glycogen into glucose and then releases it into the blood stream.
HLA or Human Leukocyte Antigens also play an important role in determining the chances of occurrence of diabetes in an individual since these cells help in recognizing the body’s own cells as foreign cells leading to their auto-destruction. Gestational Diabetes is harmful to both mother and fetus and may result in few complications if not controlled.
The treatment for the two types are also similar – diet change, exercise and insulin injections. If a person consumes unhealthy diet, the blood sugar spikes and the pancreas is unable to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin to reduce the level.
When traveling for long periods, carry sufficient amounts of insulin and always carry foods and drinks in case the flight is delayed and you have spend time at the airport. I also appreciate the authors perspective on home making and how it benefits our Gestational Diabetes Log Sheet families. Risk factors for ear disease include overcrowded homes, exposure to smoking, living in poor conditions and poor hygiene. When the glucose levels are abnormally high, it leads to the diagnosis of some type of diabetes or prediabetes. This can result in fatigue, lethargy and other health-related problems, including Type II diabetes.
Insulin resistance occurs when the normal amount of insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas is not able to unlock the Gestational Diabetes Log Sheet cells?



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