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Insulin glargine is a recombinant human insulin analog which is given as a basal source of insulin in type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
On the other hand, GLP-1 (Glucagon like peptide-1) receptor agonist mimic GLP-1 and increase the incretin effect in type 2 diabetes patients. Together in a fixed ratio combination they require FDA approval for type 2 diabetes treatment. Lixisenatide was promoted for NDA submission based on the results of GetGoal clinical program results.
Two Phase III studies with more than 1900 patients all around the world were conducted prior to NDA submission to study the safety and efficacy of the fixed-ratio combination. Medgenera is a new age digital native media covering the business, finance and innovations in biotech, pharmaceutical and chemistry industries. Type 2 diabetes is a general term for the kind of diabetes that occurs gradually, usually in middle age or later in life (although more and more children and teenagers are diagnosed with the disease every year).
Insulin resistance is usually given a circular definition, something on the lines of "resistance to insulin." A better way of understanding the phenomenon of insulin resistance is by analogy, such as a key jammed into a lock. It is fashionable for doctors to blame their patients for type 2 diabetes, but it really isn't just a matter of eating too much sugar for too many years. One of the more puzzling realities about type 2 diabetes is that sometimes people get it even though they are physically active and not overweight.
Many diabetics only learn of their disease when they start experiencing unquenchable thirst. Many diabetics miss the basic message of all good diabetes diet instruction: Diabetics just can't eat sugar.
There is only one medication that always works for diabetes, and that medication is insulin. Normal blood sugar levels are different depending on the age of a person with certain percentage of healthy children having lower blood sugar levels than adults, and whether the person is healthy or diabetic. Find health and lifestyle advices & Get answers!Share real-life experiences with more than 250,000 community members! The cells in the body of an individual with type 2 diabetes are resistant to the effects of the hormone insulin. A few individuals are born resistant to the effects of insulin as a result of mutations in their INSR gene, which templates the protein via which insulin mediates its effects. By studying individuals with INSR mutations, a team of researchers, led by David Savage, at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, have now answered this question: defects in insulin signaling can cause dysfunctional mitochondria (at least in these individuals). Eventually insulin resistance overwhelms the ability of beta-cells to compensate in this way, and the individual becomes diabetic.
By combining the complementary therapeutic effects of insulin glargine on fasting plasma glucose and of lixisenatide on postprandial plasma glucose, both of which can contribute to HbA1c lowering, this fixed-ratio product may address some of the unmet needs of adults living with type 2 diabetes who are considering initiating or intensifying insulin. This drug on approval would bring about drastic changes in treatment methodology of type 2 diabetes. I am recent graduate in Biotechnology from Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Anna University, Chennai, India and as an enthusiastic fresher I am looking forward to set milestones in scientific writing. Join us (for free!) and stay updated for the entire perspectives on entrepreneurship, investment and true innovations in biotech, pharmaceutical and chemistry industries.


In this kind of diabetes, the pancreas still makes enough insulin to get blood sugar levels down to normal at least part of the day, but it is not able to keep up with the load of glucose released by the digestion of a normal diet.
Cells all over the body have receptor sites for glucose that are activated by insulin, and they also have receptor sites for fatty acids that are activated by insulin. Typically, there is some kind of injury or infection that makes cells temporarily sensitive to sugar, needing to block the entry of sugar until they can recover.
This occurs when the disease is actually rather advanced, or at least when blood sugar levels are quite high. The American Diabetes Association says that since all kinds of carbohydrate are converted into glucose, why not just eat a little cake and candy too, but the truth is, even tiny amounts of sugar can cause large increases in blood sugar levels after a meal. The problem in these men is usually damage to the nerves that enlarge the arteries that carry blood into the penis to power an erection. These individuals provide the unique opportunity to understand the relationship between features of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance; that is, whether the insulin resistance or the given feature came first).
The team therefore concludes that it is likely that insulin resistance in individuals with type 2 diabetes can impair mitochondrial function.
A team of researchers, led by Derek LeRoith and Shoshana Yakar, at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, has now determined that, in mice, beta-cell expression of the molecule to which growth hormone binds is important if the cells are to increase in number to compensate for conditions that promote type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is usually not a disease of insulin dependency, that is, people who have don't have to inject insulin to live, but it is a disease of insulin resistance, in which the blood sugar level only responds to very large amounts of insulin. In insulin resistance, the receptor sites for glucose (sugar) stop working but the receptor sites for fat work just fine. This process starts the downward spiral of ever increasing insulin resistance and ever increasing insulin levels (until the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas eventually "burn out"), with more and more fat getting stored in fat cells that can't be released for muscles to burn.
Some people have naturally small fat cells, which have relatively few receptor sites for insulin. It will be dull rather than sharp, cause pain on both sides of the head rather than one side of the head, and often associated with blurry vision.
Pathogenic bacteria in the urinary tract that are constantly bathed in sugar the kidneys remove from the bloodstream into the urine grow clinging biofilms that help them spread up from the opening of the urinary tract all the way to the kidneys.
This, in turn, acts on the insulin-producing cells of the body (pancreatic beta cells) causing them to increase in size and number so that more insulin is produced. Expression of this molecule was also found to be important for glucose stimulation of insulin production. The results for both the studies are expected to be presented in American Diabetes Association‘s 76th Scientific Sessions held in June 2016. Cells protect themselves against excess inflow of sugar by shutting down their "doors" for glucose. If something happens to these fat cells so that they need to shut down their insulin receptor sites, blood sugar levels go up, because fat cells just can't absorb it for storage, but there isn't more than a small pot-belly kind of weight gain, because the fat cells are few and small. In a diabetic dehydration headache, the vision will be blurry but there won't be the "shooting stars" or "kaleidoscope" sensations that can occur with head injury, migraines, or stroke.
If you take a medication that reduces insulin resistance, such as metformin, you'll need less insulin to manage your blood sugar levels.
These data help dispel the controversy surrounding the function of growth hormone receptor on beta-cells by providing clear insight into its role on these cells.


This drug is currently approved in more than 60 countries and is sold under the proprietary name Lyxumia®. This leaves more sugar in the bloodstream, which causes the pancrease to release more insulin, which results in even more insulin resistance, and so on, until diabetes eventually results.
Sometimes you can't do very much, but reducing total calories, so you have less fat to store, at least gives your body a head start for normalizing blood sugar levels. If you have this kind of type 2 diabetes, you likely to have to focus on treatment to keep the disease from getting worse.
Some undiagnosed diabetes need to drink 10, 20, or even 30 liters per day (2 to 6 gallons), and still have dry skin and thirst 24 hours a day.
If drinking water relieves headache, diabetes is a likely cause, but this kind of headache is a sign that beginning diabetes treatment is urgent. These kinds of boils and furuncles are easily distinguished by their yellow, pus-filled centers. Work out long enough to expend 400 to 500 calories, so your liver will store the sugar released from your sweet indulgence.
All other oral medications increase the production of insulin by the pancreas (not a good long-term strategy, since eventually the insulin-making beta cells of the pancreas will become depleted and insulin injections will become necessary), or reduce insulin resistance (some of them by increasing the body's number of fat cells, which is what happens with Actos and Avandia), or by increasing the production of a protein known as a glucagon-like peptide. Women who have diabetes also lose the ability to feel and enjoy sexual intercourse, and many have recurrent problems with urinary tract infections. Reducing your intake enough actually to lose weight--which takes a lot of willpower--is even better.
The popular "diabetes reversal diets," which sometimes actually work, aren't as likely to work for you. If you were to taste your own urine, which isn't something we necessarily recommend, it would be noticeably sweet--and a paper test for spillover sugars in urine, available at pharmacies, would test positive.
Diabetics are also particularly prone to yeast infections--yeast feeds on sugar, after all--and fungal infections of the feet and sinuses. But be forewarned that anytime you eat sugar, your cells temporarily become more insulin resistant.
Drugs in this last category, such as Byetta and Victoza, increase the production of insulin and also reduce the appetite--but not without side effects. For women, too, a couple of years of careful blood sugar control will improve the underlying problem. Injected insulin is the one and only diabetes medication that always works, if taken in the right dose.
High blood sugar levels feed the bacteria in the gums and the bacterial infection in the gum raises blood sugar levels.
Urine that smells like nail polish remover is a sign you need to seek emergency medical treatment, as are positive tests (again, with test strips available at any pharmacy) for ketones in the urine.



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