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In an effort from Silicon Graphics Inc (SGI) to get more vendors to produce software that would run on their workstations, SGI together with Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM, Intel, and Microsoft formed the OpenGL Architecture Review Board (ARB). In 2006 SGI transfered control of the OpenGL standard from the ARB to a new working group within The Khronos Group. The only prerequisite for developing OpenGL applications using the core OpenGL API is that you have a supported development environment such as Microsoft’s Visual Studio 2008 and that you have supported drivers from your graphics card manufacturer.
Optionally, you can use the OpenGL Utility Toolkit (GLUT) if you want to be able to create code that is portable to other platforms with the least amount of changes to your source. If you plan on using extensions in your program, you can use either the OpenGL Extension Wrangler Library (GLEW), or The OpenGL Easy Extension Library (GLEE).
In this tutorial, I will show how to create a project in Visual Studio 2008 that can be used as a starting point for future OpenGL projects. If we decided to use GLUT, or any other 3rd party library that isn’t magically part of Visual Studios search paths for headers and libraries, then we must tell Visual Studio explicitly where it can find the headers and libraries that are needed to compile and link our program. Project properties are always described relative to the location of the project file itself. And the final step is to copy the pre-compiled DLL file (glut32.dll) into the same folder where our binary will be generated for our program.
Now that we have our project setup with all our headers, libs and DLL’s we can continue programming! The first thing we will do is define a few structs that will be used as vector type objects for 2D and 3D space. If an error occurs, we will use a global error code to report the error when the application exists. DiplayGL(void): This function will be registered as the render function that is invoked by GLUT when the current window needs to be redisplayed. IdleGL(void): This function is registered with GLUT and it is invoked when windows system events are not being received. KeyboardGL( unsigned char c, int x, int y ): Whenever the user presses a key on the keyboard, this method will be used as the callback method. MouseGL( int button, int state, int x, int y ): This method is registered with GLUT and it will be invoked when the user presses a mouse button on the current window. MotionGL( int x, int y ): This method is invoked when the mouse moves within the window while one or more mouse buttons are pressed.
ReshapGL( int width, int height ): The reshape callback function is invoked when the render window is resized.
There will be several scenes in this demo, so I will also declare an enumeration to store the different scene types and a variable to store the current value. Since we also want to rotate some of our primitives, we will store some global parameters that will keep track of the current rotation. Since our demo will render several different scenes, we will also declare some functions to render those scenes. And the last function that will be forward-declared is the function that is responsible for cleaning up our resources. The first thing we do in this function is to capture the current ticks from the system clock.
Setting up an OpenGL context and render window is very easy using GLUT as we will see in the next function. The glutInit method is used to initialize the GLUT library and initiate communication with the windowing system.
GLUT_ALPHA: This will ensure that the color buffer has a channel to store the alpha of the pixel. The glutCreateWindow will actually create the render window using the parameters we have specified before we call this function.
The display method is the callback function that was registered with the GLUT event processing loop and is invoked whenever the current window contents need to be redrawn. The first thing we will do at the beginning of almost every render call (except in the case where you might want to perform some special effect that might require the color buffer not to be cleared) is to clear our buffers. The method glutSwapBuffers will flip the back buffer (the off-screen buffer that is currently being rendered to) with the front buffer (the frame buffer that is currently being displayed).
And the final function call glutPostRedisplay is used to tell GLUT that we are ready to render another frame. The IdleGL method will be invoked whenever there are no events to be processed in the GLUT even loop.
The first thing we do is calculate the amount of time that has passed since the last time this method has been called.
The next few lines (181-188) will update our rotation parameters that will be used later to rotate our primitives. This method is invoked by the GLUT even loop whenever the user presses a key on the keyboard. The MouseGL and MotionGL methods are used to handle mouse button clicks and mouse movement events that are sent from the GLUT event loop. In this particular demo, we don’t do anything with the mouse, so these methods are left blank.

The ReshapeGL method is invoked by the GLUT event loop whenever the render window is resized. The glViewport method is used to setup the viewport rectangle for the current OpenGL context.
The next methods that we will define are helper functions that will draw some basic primitives using OpenGL immediate mode. When we use immediate mode to draw primitives, we always begin our primitive list with a call to glBegin and our primitive list is always terminated with a call to glEnd. GL_LINE_STRIP will draw an open connected series of lines where each vertex is connected by a line segment. GL_LINE_LOOP will draw a closed connected series of lines where each vertex is connected by a line segment. GL_TRIANGLE_FAN is useful for drawing circles with any number of vertices where the first vertex is the central vertex that is used to connect all additional vertices in the list.
Starting with the first method DrawTriangle, we use a the GL_TRIANGLES primitive type to draw a single triangle from three vertices.
The next method show is DrawRectangle in which case the GL_QUADS primitive type is best suited for this purpose.
The first render method I will show you is a simple method that simply draws three 2D shapes, a red triangle, a blue square (quad), and a yellow circle. GL_MODELVIEW matrix stack is a combination of view and model (or world) matrix transformation.
Perspective Projection: Using a perspective projection, objects that are farther away from the viewer will appear smaller while objects closer to the viewer will appear larger. Orthographic Projection: Using an orthographic projection (also known as orthogonal projection or parallel projection) results in all objects, regardless of their distance from the viewer, appear to be the same size. GL_TEXTURE matrix stack is applied to the texture coordinates of a model before any texture mapping is applied.
Then we reset the modelview matrix to the identity matrix using the glLoadIdentity() method. The next line causes the modelview matrix to be translated 6 units away from the viewer (along the z-axis), one unit up (along the y-axis), and 1.5 units to the left (along the x-axis) of the current viewer.
On line 341 we specify a color that is to be used for all additional vertices that we send to the OpenGL display list. Since we don’t want the next primitive to overlap the triangle we just drew, we will move the relative center three units to the right using the method glTranslatef. The next type of scene we will render will be similar to the first, but this time we will add some different colors to each vertex. This function is quite a bit longer than the previous, that’s because we are unrolling the work we did in the helper functions. The only difference between the two scenes is in this scene I change the color state before I send a vertex to the display list. In this example, we simply rotate around the z-axis since we are looking directly down the z-axis, this will be the most obvious rotation to apply.
Up until this point we have only been using 2D vertices but this isn’t really taking advantage of the amazing power of the rendering hardware. The first thing you’ll probably notice is this is the longest render method thus far.
There really isn’t anything new being show here except for the fact that we are plotting vertices with glVertex3f instead of glVertex2f.
In this video I am using Visual Studio 2012 to setup an OpenGL template that can be used to create other OpenGL demos later.
There is a known issue with Camtasia Studio that prevents pop-up windows from being captured. It was also very obvious to enthusiasts that OpenGL could be used to render graphics in video games as well.
I choose to use VS2008 because it is still a very widely used development environment and many samples and tutorials will still use VS2008 for their C++ projects.
This function is ideal for background processing tasks such as the game’s Update methods.
This method will also be called the first time the window is displayed so it can be used as the only method that is used to setup the projection matrix.
Later, we will query the clock again to find out how much time has passed since the last time we updated our game state.
In this demo, we simply pass along the program’s command-line arguments without change.
The render window will be created with a color buffer that stores components for the color channels (as apposed to GLUT_INDEX which stores the color buffer in index color mode). Two buffers will be used to present the final image, one is used to render to, while the other is the one currently being presented on the screen. The depth buffer is used to make sure that pixels that appear closer to the viewer are not drawn behind pixels that appear further away from the viewer, regardless of the order in which the pixels are rasterized to the color buffer.
The single parameter to this function specifies the name that will be used to identify the window.
The GL_SMOOTH parameter will ensure that the color of pixels are interpolated between vertices for a smoother looking surfaces. Invoking this method will not cause another frame to be immediately rendered with the DisplayGL method (otherwise calling this method here would cause an infinite recursive function loop), but instead it simply marks, or flags the current window to be redisplayed. You may have noticed that all three parameters are updated at the same rate and I probably could have just used a single rotate variable, but if I wanted to, I could rotate each axis of the primitive with at a different rate. The method will be passed an ASCII character code that represents the keyboard key that was pressed, as well as the x and y window relative position of the mouse in pixels.
I should note that by default, the program will do nothing when the user presses keys on the keyboard while the render window has focus. I included them here because the idea is we can use this source to create additional demos in OpenGL in which case we might actually want to do something with the mouse.

This method will also be called whenever the render window is shown for the first time so we can use it to setup our viewport and projection parameters. The first two parameters specify the bottom-left corner of the viewport rectangle in pixels. To do that we first set our matrix mode to GL_PROJECTION and use the gluPerspective method to initialize the projection matrix to a perspective projection matrix. We will combine calls to these methods in our scene rendering functions to create a complex scenes.
Points will always be drawn the same size irrelevant of their distance to the camera determined by the value specified by the glPointSize(GLfloat size) method. For each additional vertex after the 3rd, the triangle is closed by adding an edge from the to the vertex. Notice the first vertex at position is the common vertex that will join all the other vertices. Manipulating the modelview matrix will determine how objects are placed in the world relative to the viewer. Changes made to the projection matrix will determine how the objects will appear on the screen.
Using the texture matrix stack, you can scale, rotate, or translate a texture on a model to achieve interesting effects.
This method has the effect of reseting any translations, scales, and rotations back to the default state thus setting the world back the origin of the global coordinate space. If you recall from the ReshapeGL method, we setup our projection matrix to be a perspective matrix using the gluPerspective method. You should be aware that this translation occurs relative to the previous translation we performed, so this means that the next primitive is not drawn at but it is actually drawn at because that is the combination of our previous translation and this one. I had to do this because the helper functions can only draw primitives with a single color, but I wanted to set the color of each vertex for this scene so I had to write-out all of the operations by hand. If GL_SMOOTH is the current shader model, then the colors will be interpolated between the different vertices. Drawing 3D primitives requires plenty of vertices (less if we use vertex buffers because then we can reuse vertices that appear at the same location). You may also notice that I’m using a built-in method provided by GLUT to draw the sphere (on line 579).
There are still many more things to learn such as, lighting, textures, meshes, animation, and the programmable pipeline. Wij hebben de ketting aangedreven versie wel op voorraad.Gemodificeerd en beste variant met nieuwe type stickers. The final result should be a working template that can be used to create your own projects using OpenGL.
This is the resolution of the current screen that is associated with the current windowing system.
This method will reset the contents of the current render target (this is usually the frame buffer for the current window).
We will use the calculated deltaTime value to ensure that our program runs smoothly independently of the frame rate and we can express our program’s values in terms of elapsed time in seconds.
This makes sense since we have updated some of the state of our demo, we want to see the results but to do that, we need to redisplay the scene by telling GLUT that we want to invoke the DisplayGL method again. I should also not that there is additional mouse motion function that will receive events when the mouse is moved over the render window when no buttons are pressed. We can imagine that the viewer is always at the origin of the global coordinate system and objects are positioned in the world by manipulating this matrix relative to that origin. This type of projection is also useful for rendering schematic views such as a maps or building schematics. This means that the units don’t necessarily refer to screen pixels, but instead to some arbitrary world units. If GL_FLAT is the current shader model, then each primitive (triangle or quad in this case) will be draw in a single color.
In the next scene we will draw the same three primitives, but this time we will add a bit of spin. This will also implicitly set the current window state for GLUT to the newly created window. Setting the depth buffer to 1.0 will ensure that all new pixels (within the view frustum) will be drawn. This extra vertex is needed to close the circle, otherwise our circle would have a half-eaten pizza shape! The scale of the world is completely meaningless and we could choose to treat each unit as a meter, a foot, a yard, a centimeter, or a milimeter or any valid measurement of distance. OpenGL stores many state variables that remain constant until you explicitly change the value of that state.
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Whatever unit you choose to use you should at least be consistent in your application with your choice of units and the artists should definitely be aware of this choice before they start modeling.
Because it is difficult to see the rotation of a solid sphere, I added the wireframe sphere that is drawn just above the solid sphere using the glutWireSphere method on line 581. Personally, I would recommend you treat one unit as a meter because this makes the most sense when you start working with physics packages that use meters and seconds and the basic units for distance and time.
Every vertex we render after this call will get this color when rendered to the screen until we explicitly change the color state.

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