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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. One of the advantages to having so many of your diabetic patients being adults is that many of them already know how they learn best. This is an example of a visual aid which has an example of a sliding scale (Huizinga et al., 2008).
Watch for verbal and non-verbal clues? Visual learners:? - phrases like “ I see what you’re saying”? - May look up and away when listening or considering something new. Watch for verbal and non-verbal clues? Auditory learners:? - phrases like “ Doesn’t sound right to me, or I hear what you’re saying”? - May look off to the side when listening or considering something new.
Watch for verbal and non-verbal clues? Kinesthetic learners? - Phrases like “Just doesn’t feel right”? - Used hand gestures when speaking? - May look down when listening or considering something new. The A1C test is a blood test that reflects the average blood-glucose level over the last two to three months.
In 1950s, hemoglobin A1c was identified as one of the largest fractions of the minor components of normal adult hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in the red blood cell, which transports oxygen from your lungs to the whole body.
HbA1c is a simple blood test measures the percentage of hemoglobin variant “A’ subtype ‘1c” that has been attached to the glucose in the blood. However, blood-glucose levels in the preceding 30 days can make more effect in the A1C than the 90 to 120 days earlier. If you are having A1C percentage, it looks less meaning, until you convert it into equivalent blood-glucose level help provide more meaning.
HbA1c tests can easily do with a regular finger stick or a blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm like testing for blood glucose. Laboratories should be aware of their method limitations with respect to interference from the most prevalent Hb variants.
Decrease or increase in erythrocyte (decrease in RBC) can make you A1C to lower or increase respectively. Hb Variants - Hemoglobin S trait, which affects about 8% of African Americans, hemoglobin C trait, which affects approximately 3% of African Americans, and hemoglobin E trait, which affects 10% to more than 50% of Southeast Asians in California, are all reported to affect some HbA1c assay methods. Vitamin C & E ingestion interfered with some assay methods and falsely decreasing results.
A splenectomy is a surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen, will falsely raise A1C. Bone marrow conditions - include leukemia, multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow), and lymphoma (blood cancer).
Nutritional deficiencies such as iron, copper, foliate vitamins B6 and B12 can falsely affect the result. Once A1C interferences are recognized; choosing an alternative form of testing, such as glycated serum protein testing (fructosamine or glycated albumin) can help assess glycaemia better. Many people have a question, what does it mean if I have a high A1C and normal blood sugars? Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: linking basic science to clinical practice. Determination of the production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria. High protonic potential actuates a mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria.


Rebecca Klaper studies emerging contaminants in freshwater systems, including the residuals of pharmaceuticals in wastewater. A medication commonly taken for Type II diabetes, which is being found in freshwater systems worldwide, has been shown to cause intersex in fish -male fish that produce eggs. A study by Rebecca Klaper at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee determined exposure to the diabetes medicine metformin causes physical changes in male fish exposed to doses similar to the amount in wastewater effluent. In addition to intersex conditions, fish exposed to metformin were smaller in size than those not exposed, said Klaper, a professor in UWM's School of Freshwater Sciences.
The study, co-authored by Nicholas Niemuth, a researcher in Klaper's lab, was recently published in the journal Chemosphere. Because intersex fish are particularly prevalent downstream from wastewater treatment plants, many studies have investigated the effect of hormones from birth control pills, Klaper said. Initially, the results of her study seemed surprising since metformin is not a hormone and it targets blood sugar regulation. But Klaper said it is also prescribed to women with a common hormonal disease called polycystic ovary syndrome. Of the chemicals she has detected in water samples collected from Lake Michigan, metformin stands out, Klaper said. The prevalence of the chemical in samples led Klaper to investigate what effects the medication may have in the environment. In a previous study, she exposed mature fish to metformin, and although there were no physical changes, she found the genes related to hormones for egg production were being expressed in males as well as females - an indication of endocrine disruption. For the current study, the researchers monitored fish that had continuous exposure to metformin from birth to adulthood.
Pharmaceuticals, caffeine and items such as toothpaste additives have been found farther out in the Great Lakes than ever before, according to a new study that also raises concerns about their levels. Researchers have found that pharmaceuticals and personal-care byproducts persist at low levels miles from sewage discharge pipes in Lake Michigan. Metformin use did not improve survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in a retrospective cohort study, according to data presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2015, April 18-22.
It's summertime, and the fields of Yolo County are filled with ranks of sunflowers, dutifully watching the rising sun. The cost and environmental impact of producing liquid biofuels and biochemicals as alternatives to petroleum-based products could be significantly reduced, thanks to a new metabolic engineering technique. Scientists have tracked the flight paths of a group of bumblebees throughout their entire lives to find out how they explore their environment and search for food.
Duke Health-led researchers have discovered new information about the signaling mechanism of cells that could one day help guide development of more specific drug therapies. Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have made a major advance in understanding how the cells of an organism, which all contain the same genetic information, come to be so diverse. A newly-named fossil whale species had superior high-frequency hearing ability, helped in part by the unique shape of inner ear features that have given scientists new clues about the evolution of this specialized sense. People who live with Type 1 diabetes suffer from an autoimmune disease, where the body has attacked the beta cells in the pancreas. My sister uses this ad as a way to describe how easily distractible both she and my niece are. Followed by different discoveries and in 1976, Koenig and colleagues demonstrated that HbA1c concentration was an indicator of fasting blood-glucose concentrations. Elevated hemoglobin F, which is associated with thalassemia syndromes, also affects some assay methods. Unfortunately, factors affecting the accuracy of HbA1c measurement may not be recognized clinically. Many others, on the other hand, have a question, what does it means if I have normal A1C and high fasting glucose?


IntroductionDiabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects of insulin action, insulin secretion or both [1]. The research in her lab indicates metformin could be a potential endocrine disruptor - a chemical that confuses the body's complicated hormonal messaging system, interrupting a range of normal activities, including reproduction. The next step is to determine the corresponding changes in the genome, which Klaper is doing at UWM's Great Lakes Genomic Center. This would be a useful tool for all patients, but would be especially appealing to a visual learner.
It is helpful for these patients to participate in groups with conversation and idea-sharing.
Both have tactile kinesthetic learning preferences.These learners should be well-rested, and well-fed.
The blood-glucose level decides the volume of glycosylation reaction and the level of glycated hemoglobins. Home tests are now available too; they are subject to inaccuracy, if not conducted exactly as stated in the instructions.
As with any laboratory test, any result that does not fit the clinical picture should require investigation further with the clinician. Diabetes has taken place as one of the most important diseases worldwide, reaching epidemic proportions. In addition, this tool allows the patient demonstrate understanding by calculating the correct dosage. Global estimates predict that the proportion of adult population with diabetes will increase 69% for the year 2030 [2].Hyperglycemia in the course of diabetes usually leads to the development of microvascular complications, and diabetic patients are more prone to accelerated atherosclerotic macrovascular disease.
Would you tell a developmentally delayed child she could think her way out of her disability or tell a blind man all he has to do is open his eyes?Charlatans try to sell "cures" to Type 2 diabetics, who want to perpetuate the myth that a poor diet caused the illness, when the cause is really a genetic disorder.Finally, this story has nothing to do with Big Pharma. These complications account for premature mortality and most of the social and economical burden in the long term of diabetes [3].
Have patient “teach back” the information to you.As Dawn said in lecture, it doesn’t always make sense to teach in a logical sequence.
Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications [4]. Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, which contributes to the impairment of the main processes that fail during diabetes, insulin action and insulin secretion.
In addition, antioxidant mechanisms are diminished in diabetic patients, which may further augment oxidative stress [5, 6]. Oxidative stress At the beginning of life, the organisms obtained their energy (ATP) by anoxygenic photosinthesis, for which oxygen was toxic. Most of the metabolic pathways were developed during this anaerobic stage of life, in which oxygen came later. Cyanobacteria started producing oxygen from photosynthesis, which raised the atmospheric oxygen, and favored those organisms which have evolved into eukaryotic cells with mitochondria, able to use oxygen for a more efficient energy production [9].Whenever a cell’s internal environment is perturbed by infections, disease, toxins or nutritional imbalance, mitochondria diverts electron flow away from itself, forming reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), thus lowering oxygen consumption. This “oxidative shielding” acts as a defense mechanism for either decreasing cellular uptake of toxic pathogens or chemicals from the environment, or to kill the cell by apoptosis and thus avoid the spreading to neighboring cells [9]. The term “oxidative stress” has been used to define a state in which ROS and RNS reach excessive levels, either by excess production or insufficient removal.
Being highly reactive molecules, the pathological consequence of ROS and RNS excess is damage to proteins, lipids and DNA [10]. Consistent with the primary role of ROS and RNS formation, this oxidative stress damage may lead to physiological dysfunction, cell death, pathologies such as diabetes and cancer, and aging of the organism [11].



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Comments to Diabetes type 1 and dka

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  2. JaguaR on 12.04.2014
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  4. TARKAN on 12.04.2014
  5. Carbohydrates, insulin levels remain low little carbs for many days the low-carb food.
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  7. Amounts of carbs which you recently identified with.
  8. Bakinka_111 on 12.04.2014
  9. Triglyceride ranges additionally improved in diabetics following barely accessible in purple meat.) I was.
  10. ALQAYIT_YEK on 12.04.2014