Diabetes mellitus treatment modalities synonym,din s fire,literature review on type 2 diabetes mellitus - Easy Way

If the person recovers and weigh up to 120 kg, therefore, increase the number of cells that you want to open. It is overweight is a leading cause of diabetes type 2, which accounts for more than 90% of all cases of this disease. Rarely, other types of diabetes associated with various endocrine and endokrinnye diseases, and certain medications. On our website describes the most common disease of adults and children, causes and symptoms of these diseases, as well as the most effective treatments for these diseases.
The information on this health site are for informational purposes only, professional diagnosis and treatment of the disease should be done by the doctor in the clinic. Chronic alcoholism is the most important cause of chronic pancreatitis, generating over 90% of cases of chronic pancreatitis.
Gallstones, although it is certainly a factor for acute pancreatitis, is not a generator factor for chronic pancreatitis.
Hypercalcemia of hyperparathyroidism, is another possible etiologic factor of acute pancreatitis, but certainly not one for chronic pancreatitis. Ductal obstructions given by pancreatic trauma, pancreatic tumors, stenosis of Oddi’s sphincter, presence of stones in Wirsung duct.
Hereditary pancreatitis involves the presence of a gene that is transmitted autosomal reigned.
Various conditions such as malnutrition (tropical chronic pancreatitis in India, Africa and Southeast Asia), hemochromatosis (tanned diabetes – cause is iron deposition in the liver, pancreas and myocardium). In conclusion, the cause of chronic pancreatitis is almost exclusively represented by chronic alcoholism.
In conditions of chronic alcoholism, the pancreas secretes a pancreatic juice with higher protein content than normal. Chronic pancreatitis have most often inisidios onset, sometimes difficult to differentiate from repetitive acute pancreatitis alcoholic relapse.
Symptomatology is dominated by epigastric pain or around the navel, often with radiation to back.
Other symptoms may include obstructive jaundice made by the compression of the pancreatic head over the coledoc, malabsorption with steatorrhea or diabetes mellitus (occurs in 50% – 70% of chronic pancreatitis calcified).
Blood glucose levels may be increased because of secondary diabetes, is useful a oral glucose tolerance test. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, highlights aspects of morphological pancreatic duct, stenosis and dilatation, as occurs in chronic pancreatitis. Fecal elastase 1 test, a functional test, which highlights the early pancreatic failure, it is the gold test for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatits used nowadays. Mixed chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic tissue calcification and dilatation of the duct. Treatment should begin with some dietary measures, the most important is the final and complete suppression of alcohol consumption. Type 2 diabetes is triggered by multiple causes interacting with one another, such as genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors that may favor the development of diabetes there are overweight and obesity (especially excess of belly fat) and an unbalanced diet, rich in saturated fats and simple sugars. Often , diabetes is associated with other metabolic diseases, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia.
The main characteristic of diabetes is the presence of elevated blood glucose levels in the blood; hyperglycemia may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific symptoms (such as persistent thirst or increased sense of hunger associated with weight loss).
It 's very important to diagnose and treat diabetes the best way you can, because over time this disease can cause very serious complications, especially regarding retina and kidney.
Type 2 diabetes must be treated by a healthcare professional with appropriate pharmacotherapy . For lunch and dinner eat full meals composed of bread, pasta or rice (preferably cooked "al dente", using in about 50% of cases whole grains) plus a second course (meat or fish or cheese or cold meats or eggs or legumes) plus vegetables plus fruit. Limit sugary fruit: bananas, figs, persimmons, grapes, tangerines and clementines, dried fruit, dried and canned. Limit as much as possible the consumption of sweets (cookies, cakes, snacks, desserts) and carbonated soft drinks.
Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin may need personalized type 2 diabetes diet that is generally provided by the Diet and Nutrition Clinic Services. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
I want to explain a few secrets of endurance training by answering some fair and common questions about it. By continuing to use this website without changing the settings, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. What is Insulin Resistance?Insulin resistance (IR) is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. In this case they are referred to the food exclusion diets to which the patient is sensitized by mechanisms of allergy.
Atopic eczema outbreaks are caused or exacerbated by emotional stress, states of anxiety or stress and anxiety. The most common allergic manifestations in childhood and adolescence are rhinitis, asthma, eczema and hives, unusual, and less frequently, while being as important as the first, are allergies to medicines, food, pitting insect, contact, and so on. In fact the allergy is not a disease, by contrast, is a mechanism by which an organism reacts differently to stimuli that are harmless to others. Contrary to popular belief, it is not a lack of defenses, but the body’s exaggerated response to a given stimulus. The most common symptom of allergic rhinitis is, it can be permanent or presented in special times of the year (seasonal rhinitis). This is a very complex patient, as it not only reacts to external stimuli but also faces an emotional situation, the arrival of a sibling, change of address, an exam, a domestic conflict, and so on. In those allergic to have a genetic predisposition, symptoms can last a long time, disappear and reappear again in another organ or impacting differently.
Can be recognized by some peculiarities: the small complains of itching in the nose, eyes and even on the inside of the ears and palate. In childhood and adolescence, antihistamines based treatments seem to be the answer you are looking for, especially when used in a preventive manner for a long period. Until recently, the use of antihistamines was a problem: they produced sleep interfered with the study or sport.


Therefore, it is important to eat right, live an active lifestyle to prevent obesity, which, as you understand, is a leading factor in the implementation of the genetic information, which he handed to parents.
The presence of steatorrhea (bulky, paste and rancid odor stools) is a very late sign, when the disease is already accompanied by malabsorption and weight loss.
Thus, a cholecystectomy in asymptomatic patients to prevent chronic pancreatitis is unjustified, as well as a correlation between chronic pancreatitis and gallstones. These proteins will precipitate in the form of protein plugs, which will cause obstruction of small ducts of the pancreas and will activate the pancreatic enzymes. Pain can be dragged, annoying, less occasionally, sometimes may be intense, permanent, disabling.
Values of this enzymes are not so high as in acute pancreatitis, but there are severe forms of chronic pancreatitis which have normal levels of these parameters. At first it may be asymptomatic, but in time the symptoms will appear of which the most important is pain. Should be avoided heavy meals, rich in fat and protein because it stimulates pancreatic secretion and may cause exacerbation of pain. I became a fitness passionate during the last 10 years, where I learned a lot by studying and also through personal experience. Cookies are files stored in your browser and are used by most websites to help personalize your web experience.
Insulin resistance in fat cells reduces the effects of insulin and results in elevated hydrolysis of stored triglycerides in the absence of measures which either increase insulin sensitivity or which provide additional insulin.
The doctor with the ability to grasp situations and values, can help a lot with good psychotherapy. This reaction is conditioned by a genetic predisposition with some specificity for each child.
These stimuli are caused by allergens and may be multiple and varied: environmental fungi, mites, dander, cat or dog dander, feathers, and so on. The latter is what appears mainly in spring as a result of the wide variety of pollen that swarm through the air. Face of multiple stimuli, the child reacts with obstruction of the airway which causes him difficulty breathing, which is higher according to the caliber of the bronchus to be obstructed.
In addition to respiratory distress, the boy coughs and wheezes and whistles, or a sound that parents compare with producing a liquid boiling. Of allergic origin always affects both eyes (not necessarily the other) and does not Leganes. It put the lowest number of furniture as possible and avoid curtains, carpets and decorations. Heavy drinking is also beneficial for bronchial cilia, tiny filaments that push the pollen (and foreign elements) of the lower respiratory tract.
Neffen claimed that one in six people in the world suffering from some kind of allergic disease. It would show that the increase in allergic diseases are more related to the quality of air breathed indoors with air pollution. In adolescence, when most recurrences occur, but this is due to low effect of the drugs but the higher number of desertions. Currently, work is well with the new generation antihistamines, such as the fexofena-dina with one or two meals a day is enough to stop the major symptoms. The presence of a case history of chronic alcoholism is an important element for diagnosis. At autopsy 45% of chronic alcoholics show morphological changes of chronic pancreatitis, even if they had no clinical signs of disease.
Diagnosis is usually after age 40 years, but sometimes can occur in cases diagnosed around the age of 30 years, in these cases is possible the existence of a genetic factor.
Often the pain is caused by diet and therefore, patients with chronic pancreatitis prefer not to eat, but only to consume alcohol, which can have an analgesic effect for them. Increased mobilization of stored lipids in these cells elevates free fatty acids in the blood plasma. Although the bath with warm water and relieves itching if the benefit is significantly better if the water is added in solution or suspension, or some oat powder formulas with soft tar.
For this reason, although all children are carriers of allergic sensitivity does not all have the same reaction to an allergen. When one of them hits a sensitive organism, stimulates the immune system resulting in the synthesis of antibodies, substances that fight to allergens, which is not always achieved.
The first symptoms are constant tearing, eyelid eczema with scaling in the region of the eyelashes, sneezing, nasal obstruction or increased nasal discharge with a watery mucus and clear. Hence the importance of initiating treatment as early as possible and not just treating the crisis, but a preventive approach, using long-term medication that has given such good results.
In 1996, the president of the European Academy of Immunology, one of the discoverers of IgE (immunoglobulin E, present and increased in all allergic process), Dr. In fact, in practice there is a greater incidence of allergic reactions triggered by household allergens, mites, fungi, etc., that other substances.
That is why we must strengthen a lot of work with young people, to avoid complications of allergy, especially involving the respiratory system.
As it has no side effects, dropouts are less frequent and protective effects can be achieved with long-term use. That is, if a person, for example, weighs 60 kg, then the body produces about 60 units of insulin per day. Many may argue that it is never anyone in the genus diabetes was not, and I suddenly became ill.
Clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis usually are installed later, after 10-20 years of important use of alcohol.
Stone formation is favored by the alteration done by the alcohol over the synthesis of litostatin, a pancreatic enzyme known in the past as pancreatic stone protein.
At 10% – 20% of chronic pancreatitis, painful symptoms may be absent, the diagnosis being made at the laboratory of exploration. Insulin resistance in muscle cells reduces glucose uptake (and so local storage of glucose as glycogen), whereas insulin resistance in liver cells results in impaired glycogen synthesis and a failure to suppress glucose production.
Those with allergies also refer to a rash, after ingesting a food that acts as an allergen, or against the bite of an insect. At some patients may occur an ethanol liver damage (steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis or ethanolic cirrhosis).


Elevated blood fatty-acid concentrations (associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus Type 2), reduced muscle glucose uptake, and increased liver glucose production all contribute to elevated blood glucose concentration.
Following obstruction some ducts will broke, others will suffer o process of fibrosi, leading in the final to the appearance of stenosis. This information brought to our country show revenues of approximately 10,000,000 allergies in all its varieties.
This, however, does not mean that if the parents had diabetes, he will develop and the child.
The risk of developing type 1 diabetes in a child if sick mother, is 3-5%, if sick father is about 6%, if both parents – to 11%. In an ''insulin-resistant'' person, normal levels of insulin do not have the same effect on muscle and adipose cells, with the result that glucose levels stay higher than normal. To compensate for this, the pancreas in an insulin-resistant individual is stimulated to release more insulin. The elevated insulin levels have additional effects (see insulin) which cause further biological effects throughout the body.The most common type of insulin resistance is associated with a collection of symptoms known as metabolic syndrome. This is often seen when hyperglycemia develops after a meal, when pancreatic I?-cells are unable to produce sufficient insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels (euglycemia). The inability of the I?-cells to produce sufficient insulin in a condition of hyperglycemia is what characterizes the transition from insulin resistance to Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Various disease states make the body tissues more resistant to the actions of insulin. Recent research is investigating the roles of adipokines (the cytokines produced by adipose tissue) in insulin resistance.
Exercise reverses this process in muscle tissue, but if left unchecked, it can spiral into insulin resistance.Elevated blood levels of glucose a€” regardless of cause a€” leads to increased glycation of proteins with changes (only a few of which are understood in any detail) in protein function throughout the body.
With respect to visceral adiposity, a great deal of evidence suggests two strong links with insulin resistance.
First, unlike subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and Interleukins-1 and -6, etc. In numerous experimental models, these proinfammatory cytokines profoundly disrupt normal insulin action in fat and muscle cells, and may be a major factor in causing the whole-body insulin resistance observed in patients with visceral adiposity. Second, visceral adiposity is related to an accumulation of fat in the liver, a condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this case, the production of antibodies against insulin leads to lower-than-expected glucose level reductions (glycemia) after a specific dose of insulin. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that insulin may modulate the shift of Mg from extracellular to intracellular space.
Intracellular Mg concentration has also been shown to be effective in modulating insulin action (mainly oxidative glucose metabolism), offset calcium-related excitation-contraction coupling, and decrease smooth cell responsiveness to depolarizing stimuli.
Poor intracellular Mg concentrations, as found in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and in hypertensive patients, may result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity at the insulin receptor level and exaggerated intracellular calcium concentration. Both events are responsible for the impairment in insulin action and a worsening of insulin resistance in noninsulin-dependent diabetic and hypertensive patients. By contrast, in T2DM patients daily Mg administration, restoring a more appropriate intracellular Mg concentration, contributes to improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The benefits deriving- from daily Mg supplementation in T2DM patients are further supported by epidemiological studies showing that high daily Mg intake are predictive of a lower incidence of T2DM. An American study has shown that glucosamine (often prescribed for joint problems) may cause insulin resistance.Insulin resistance has also been linked to PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) as either causing it or being caused by it. Insulin resistance has certainly risen in step with the increase in sugar consumption and the substantial commercial usage of HFCS since its introduction to the food trades; the effect may also be due to other parallel diet changes however.
CellularAt the cellular level, excessive circulating insulin appears to be a contributor to insulin resistance via down-regulation of insulin receptors. Since the usual instances of Type 2 insulin resistance are distinct from pathological over production of insulin, this does not seem to be the typical cause of the insulin resistance leading to Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the largest clinical issue connected with insulin resistance. The presence of insulin resistance typically precedes the diagnosis of Types 2 diabetes mellitus, however, and as elevated blood glucose levels are the primary stimulus for insulin secretion and production, habitually excessive carbohydrate intake is a likely contributor. Additionally, some Type 2 cases require so much external insulin that this down-regulation contributes to total insulin resistance.Inflammation also seems to be implicated in causing insulin resistance. PKC Theta inhibits Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) activation and hence prevents glucose up-take in response to insulin.
MolecularInsulin resistance has been proposed at a molecular level to be a reaction to excess nutrition by superoxide dismutase in cell mitochondria that acts as a antioxidant defense mechanism. It is also based on the finding that insulin resistance can be rapidly reversed by exposing cells to mitochondrial uncouplers, electron transport chain inhibitors, or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetics.GeneticIndividual variability is a cause with an inherited component, as sharply increased rates of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are found in those with close relatives who have developed Type 2 diabetes. DiseaseSub-clinical Cushing's syndrome and hypogonadism (low testosterone levels) seem to be the major insulin resistance causes .Recent research and experimentation has uncovered a non-obesity related connection to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes.
It has long been observed that patients who have had some kinds of bariatric surgery have increased insulin sensitivity and even remission of Type 2 diabetes. This suggested similar surgery in humans, and early reports in prominent medical journals (January 8) are that the same effect is seen in humans, at least the small number who have participated in the experimental surgical program.
The speculation is that some substance is produced in that portion of the small intestine which signals body cells to become insulin resistant.
If the producing tissue is removed, the signal ceases and body cells revert to normal insulin sensitivity. Both metformin and the thiazolidinediones improve insulin resistance, but are only approved therapies for type 2 diabetes, not insulin resistance, ''per se''.
By contrast, growth hormone replacement therapy may be associated with increased insulin resistance.Metformin has become one of the more commonly prescribed medications for insulin resistance, and currently a newer drug, exenatide (marketed as Byetta), is being used.
Exenatide has not been approved except for use in diabetics, but often improves insulin resistance by the same mechanism as it does diabetes. It also has been used to aid in weight loss for diabetics and those with insulin resistance, and is being studied for this use as well as for weight loss in people who have gained weight while on antidepressants.
The ''Diabetes Prevention Program'' showed that exercise and diet were nearly twice as effective as metformin at reducing the risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes.Many people with insulin resistance currently follow the lead of some diabetics, and add cinnamon in therapeutic doses to their diet to help control blood sugar.



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