Diabetes cure pancreas transplant hospitals,type 1 diabetes research news 2014,essay on medication errors in nursing documentation - PDF Books

In a healthy body, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are responsible for maintaining normal blood glucose levels.
Right now, we imitate a diabetes cure by replacing insulin from the outside with injections.
For a diabetes cure, then, we will need more than injected insulin; we will need beta cells, or a close imitation of them. So how can we replace beta cells without requiring immunosuppression to prevent transplant rejection? Transdifferentiation is the process by which a cell is switched from one kind of tissue cell– say, a liver cell– to another kind– say, a beta cell. So, scientists have found that in order to turn a liver cell into a beta cell, we need to make the liver cell use beta cell transcription factors. In the case of beta cells, many years of research have gone into determining that one of the most important beta cell transcription factors is a protein called PDX1. Further, cell therapy with virally transduced cells is still the Wild West, from a medical perspective.
I understand that transdifferentiation also conveniently circumvents the social-political-ethical issues surrounding stem cells. The Diabetes Media Foundation is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt nonprofit media organization devoted to informing, educating, and generating community around living a healthy life with diabetes. Thomas Seyfried PhD, a brain cancer researcher with over 25 years of experience in the field, gave a groundbreaking presentation about cancer at the Ancestral Health Symposium held at Harvard Law School this past August. After attending his lecture, which challenged everything I thought I knew about cancer, I was inspired to read his new book, entitled Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer.
I was taught in medical school that cancer is about genes going haywire—something evil comes along, like a toxic chemical or a beam of radiation, attacks your DNA, and poof—you’ve got cancer (unless you are a cartoon character, in which case you develop superpowers).
The company line is that cancer is caused by mutations (changes) in DNA that transform healthy, well-behaved cells into reckless, ravenous, immortal renegades.
Hundreds of thousands of different mutations have been discovered in cancerous cells, but it is actually rare to find genetic mutations in healthy cells because healthy cells have stable DNA. Yes, most tumor cells are growing faster than most of their healthy neighboring cells, but this is not because they are speedier.
Just because cancer cells have lots of mutations doesn’t necessarily mean that mutations cause cancer. A huge variety of things in the world—from viruses to radiation to chemicals to oxidation—can damage DNA and cause mutations.
The transformation of a healthy cell into a cancerous cell (malignant transformation) happens in the very same specific way every time.
How can all of these different and unpredictable events leading to all of those random mutations always cause exactly the same outcome? Mutated genes thought to be strongly associated with cancer (“oncogenes”) sometimes do promote tumor growth, but sometimes they inhibit tumor growth, and sometimes they even do both. Here’s the thing: if you transplant mutated cancer cell DNA into a healthy cell, the healthy cell almost never becomes cancerous. Just think about it: if cancer is a genetic disease, based on hundreds of thousands of mutations, what are we supposed to do, create hundreds of thousands of different drugs to treat it? Seyfried argues that the reason why we are making so little progress is because we are fighting the wrong enemy. In the next article in the series, What Causes Cancer: Part II, I explain the role of mitochondria in our cells and the significant link between damaged mitochondria and cancer.
To read my detailed critique of the World Health Organization’s 2015 report claiming that red meat causes cancer: WHO Says Meat Causes Cancer?
Tripping Over the Truth: The Return of the Metabolic Theory of Cancer Illuminates a New and Hopeful Path to a Cure  by Travis Christofferson. Sign up to be notified of my latest posts!Signup now and receive an email once I publish new content. In it, he says “cancer is a metabolic mitochondrial disease caused by multiple different things in the environment damaging respiration.
I read an interview with Loren Cordain (author of The Paleo Diet), who cites an obscure publication on autopsies of centuries-old Inuit mummies—who apparently ate diets of 100% meat or extremely close to it—that showed that they had significant atherosclerosis. I understand that your body does not tolerate fruit well, and you do seem to agree with me that fruit is generally healthier than other plant parts. But why is it that regardless of what you do, once you’ve metastasized, you almost always die of the cancer?
I’m sorry to hear that you are dealing with cancer, and sincerely hope that you will be able to find a nutritional approach that will help the body to remove cancer cells. Hello Vanessa, I just wanted to let you know that I have written an eBook on implementing a ketogenic diet to treat cancer that you may find helpful. I wish I knew ersonally of clinicians who could help you; this is the most common question I get from readers.
I have been a fan of Thomas for a few years, interviewing him and writing about his theories in papers for graduate school. Thank you very much for taking the time to both read the synopsis and to tell me what you thought of it. So many readers have written in to ask me if I know of physicians who use ketogenic diets to treat cancer and I have been at a loss to guide them in this regard. Having looked at your Parts 1-4 of Thomas Seyfried’s work, to greatly simply this, is it too simple to say or addiction to simple sugar, the sugar in beer and social alcohol beverages, and no exercise to burn this sugar up, is killing us? Thank you so much for being a truthful, generous and sincere person, willing to help others for no financial benefit. A chemical found in ayahuasca has the potential to regenerate pancreas cells that have been lost to diabetes.
Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice.
As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. SPRING BAY—The Manitoulin Island community has come together again, this time to raise funds for Dawn Young, a Spring Bay resident who has Type 1 diabetes and now requires a double transplant (pancreas and kidneys) that will cure her of diabetes. As has been reported previously, Dawn Young, who has Type 1 diabetes and now requires a double transplant (pancreas and kidneys), has received word that the surgery is expected to take place very soon, and it will cure the Spring Bay woman of diabetes (which she has had since she was seven-years-old). Diabetes International Foundation - Pancreatic Islet Transplantation Info  What are pancreatic islets? The pancreas, an organ about the size of a hand, is located behind  the lower  part of  thestomach. In type 1 diabetes, however, these beta cells die as a result of an autoimmune attack, and in type 2 diabetes, beta cells can become overtaxed and begin to die off. Many researchers around the world are working on different approaches to allow us to produce steady, sustainable supplies of insulin-producing cells. Sarah Ferber runs a lab in Sheba Medical Center near Tel Aviv, and has founded the company Orgenesis in order to turn a dozen years worth of her research into a cure for insulin-dependent diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2. Ferber and Orgenesis are currently working towards developing the technology to extract liver cells from a patient with a biopsy, expand the liver cells in culture in the lab, and then turn the liver cells into functional beta cells.
This process is similar to taking a stem cell and turning it into any kind of tissue cell (ViaCyte is trying to make beta cells from stem cells in this manner), but instead of starting from a stem cell that can by its nature turn into many kinds of cells, transdifferentiation starts from a cell that is already committed to being a certain kind of cell.
Ferber must tell the liver cell, “Stop acting like a liver cell, and start acting like a beta cell.” For many years, scientists have been studying the question of what makes a certain kind of cell do what it does, and for decades research has been building that shows that certain proteins within cells, called transcription factors, are responsible for binding to DNA and turning genes on and off within cells. In the last ten years, there has been a renaissance in this sort of transdifferentiation by replacing transcription factors, and, luckily for diabetics, beta cells are one of the big areas of focus in this field.
This is not the only important factor, and in fact transcription factors are not binary, but maybe what makes beta cells beta-cell-like is the particular mix and balance of all sorts of transcription factors, but PDX1 is a very good start, and might be enough to tip the balance of the cell.
Ferber takes liver cells from a patient, grows them in a dish, and then adds a viral vector with the gene for PDX1 to the liver cells. Ferber is now progressing towards the point of being able to run human clinical trials, one step at a time. Autologous cells may get around the problem of transplant rejection, but not necessarily the problem of autoimmunity for type 1 diabetics. There are a handful of FDA approved cell therapies, but no approved gene therapy products outside of clinical trials to date, and no approved transdifferentiated cell therapies. I was vaguely aware of this research, and I much appreciate the thorough explanation and profile. In it he lays out 400+ pages of dense scientific evidence—complete with 1,740 references, and dozens of charts, graphs and full-color glossy images to make his case. These blueprints have to be flexible, because cells need different proteins under different circumstances.
These mutations hijack the set of instructions encoded in the cells’ DNA, and scientists think these mutations cause cells to go wild. They grow independently, ignoring the anti-growth signals and death cues that would normally keep healthy cells from getting out of control.
DNA is the most important molecule in the body so evolution has made sure it is well-protected. It is, after all, the stability of healthy DNA that allows our cells to adapt to stressful environments.

Seyfried argues that mutations are just red herrings (no disrespect to the herring community intended).
That’s like saying no matter how you attack an orc—whether you stab him in the belly with a sword, throw a rock at his head, or push him off a cliff—his left arm always falls off.
Even those mutations most strongly associated with certain cancers only cause cancer in certain people.
Only 2 out of 24 experiments were successful in transforming normal cells into cancer cells (and scientists couldn’t be sure that viral contamination wasn’t to blame). The mutation theory of cancer has been solidly in place and guiding research since 1981, yet despite the enormous amounts of money, time, and energy that have been poured into cancer research since, we continue to lose the war against this killer disease. Ede may not personally respond to comments, however comments shall remain open to encourage community discussion.
It’s a small list, just under 5,000 people, but they are a committed group of people in many areas of life. Folks who adopt ketogenic diets, folks who become vegan, folks who do tons of cancer-fighting herbs under the care of a knowledgeable MD or herbalist, still almost always die of their cancer once they’ve metastasized, even though some of them are well managed for longer than with conventional approaches. Why would that be?And thanks in advance for answering as clearly as you presented your articles. Also he states cancerous cells might fuse with certain immune system ones and this might lead to the cancer spreading. Ede, I understand that you are not able to give medical advice, but could you direct me to someone who can in NYC. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family.
A crucial part of a diabetes cure, therefore, will be replacing any lost beta cells with a source of insulin for the body. Some are starting with embryonic stem cell lines, some are starting with gut cells, some are starting with pigs, and Dr.
Like many researchers, she sees the benefits of islet transplantation: patients given islet cells, which include beta cells, from donor pancreases can produce insulin in response to glucose, just like non-diabetics. Ferber’s approach is to use autologous liver cells that are transdifferentiated in vitro into beta cells.  In other words, Dr.
The first two steps are straightforward, and the third step is one they are making good progress on using science’s growing understanding of transdifferentiation.
A liver cell acts like a liver cell because it has liver transcription factors, and those keep liver genes turned on.  A beta cell acts like a beta cell because it has beta cell transcription factors and not liver transcription factors. A number of groups are working to transdifferentiate alpha cells and gut cells, as those are close to beta cells on the developmental tree. The vector enters the cells, and forces the cell to start making the PDX1 protein from the gene. Cells must be able to adapt to various conditions, such as stress, injury, infection, temperature changes, and food supply.
This “genomic instability” is viewed as a strong suit by scientists who believe in the mutation theory. All the healthy cells around them are capable of growing just as fast, but there are checks and balances in place to prevent them from growing willy-nilly.
Radiation and chemotherapy are toxic to all cells, cancerous or not, but they are more toxic to tumor cells. Tumor cells are also more sensitive to heat (fever) and to starvation.  When the body is stressed, the tumor cells are the first ones to go. The sheer number and type of mutations found in cancer cells are so serious that they would cause a healthy embryo to spontaneously abort, yet cancer cells somehow soldier on. Also BRAC1 does not cause cancer by itself – but rather predisposes one for cancer because it inhibits the function of the mitochondria, and therefore the ability to generate energy through oxidative pathways. However, she also sees significant drawbacks: islet supplies are limited, and, as with other organ transplants, patients must take immunosuppressive drugs to prevent the destruction of the transplanted beta cells. Ferber wants to take a patient’s own liver cells, turn them into beta cells in the lab, and then put them back in the patient just like an islet cell transplant. PDX1 then begins to turn off liver genes and transcription factors, and to turn on beta cell genes.
Ferber has early evidence in mice that the trandifferentiated cells, though beta-cell-like, are sufficiently different from actual beta cells that they seem to slip by the immune system.
The book is expensive, and would be nearly impossible to understand without a strong scientific background, but the secrets inside are so important that I wanted to make them available to everyone—they simply must be shared.
So, genes contain lots of special controls that can be turned on and off, depending on what’s going on in and around the cell. Cancer cells lose many of the physical features of their mother cells; they are usually smaller, and may be disfigured or even shapeless. They think that the tumor cells keep mutating to improve themselves, and that the ones with the most clever mutations are the ones which survive best and reproduce best (Darwinism—survival of the fittest).
If tumor cells were more robust than normal cells, these therapies would kill off all your healthy cells and only the big ugly tumor would survive. Researchers now place hope in the Cancer Genome Project, which they see as the shining future of cancer treatment.
I started eating this way for weight loss, like most people, but the current wave of interest in keto eating and cancer (Eugene Fine, for example) has really been gratifying. I very much appreciate your work and especially look forward to these next two installments! I suspect that the reason that Inuits get aterial plaque (even if it is not a threat to their health) is because of what I am assuming is a relatively high load of PUFA’s in their diet from fish and marine mammals. Islets are made up of several types of cells, including beta cells that make insulin.  The pancreas is located in the abdomen behind the stomach.
Because the starting cells are the patient’s own cells, important protein markers on the cells would “match” what the patient’s immune system expects, and the cells would in theory not induce an immune reaction like an organ transplant would. This series of articles is dedicated to my friends, family, colleagues, and patients who are battling cancer or who have loved ones suffering with cancer. There are even “caretaker genes” that are designed to maintain and repair defects in DNA, because lots of things in the natural environment can injure DNA—even things we think of as healthy, such as sunlight and vegetables. They think of cancerous cells as invincible—as stronger, faster, and smarter than healthy cells. For example, when the liver is injured and healthy cells need to grow rapidly to replace the injured cells, their growth rate is the same as for liver cancer cells during tumor progression. Instead, people are treated to the brink of destruction with chemicals and radiation while doctors cross their fingers hoping more tumor cells will die than healthy cells, and that patients will survive the therapy. They have already started using the genetic fingerprints of cancer to design expensive, high-tech drugs that specifically target the unique DNA pattern of individual cancer cells. Because the neurons have been killed, the glutamine now goes into the tumor cells and is fermented. Some find this cure in an all vegan diet, an all raw diet, a 75% raw eating diet, some even a Paleo diet and of course this kind of diet.
Islets within the pancreas contain beta cells, which produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy. Whatever the starting material, the strategy is similar: take the genes for beta cell transcription factors, put them into the target cell, and force the target cell to make the beta cell transcription factors. Ferber has been able to take patient cells, turn them into insulin producing cells with PDX1, and then put the transdifferentiated cells into mice, curing the mice of diabetes. More than 700 of these smart bombs have been developed so far, yet none of them have saved a single life. Diabetes develops when the body doesn't make enough insulin, cannot use insulin properly, or both, causing glucose to build up in the blood. The vast majority of whatever progress we have made against cancer has been due to identification of and education about lifestyle risk factors (such as smoking), not due to advances based on genetic theories.
In type 1 diabetes-an autoimmune disease-the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body's immune system has attacked and destroyed them.
So you have powerful glucose and powerful glutamine and together they wlll fuel the tumor.This is the demise of the cancer patient. Type 2 diabetes usually begins with a condition called insulin resistance, in which the body has difficulty using insulin effectively. Over time, insulin production declines as well, so many people with type 2 diabetes eventually need to take insulin.  What is an islet cell transplant?An islet cell transplant is a treatment for people with type 1 diabetes who have trouble controlling their glucose (blood sugar). There is a limited supply of islet transplants available, so transplant centers are careful to select only those patients who really need the procedure and will be most likely to benefit.
Islet transplants are done alone or after a kidney transplant (islet alone, or islet after kidney). This means that it has not been proven to be the best way to treat type 1 diabetes.  How does a person get an islet cell transplant?Most centers require patients to enter a clinical trial, also called a study. A clinical trial is a research study where doctors try experimental drugs or medical treatments to learn more about diseases and their cures. During your clinical trial, transplant doctors will watch how your body reacts to different tests and treatments.

You have to visit the clinic a lot and have extra blood work done. When you sign up for the clinical trial, you will be given an application package.
The tests and exams are different at each center. Blood testsThe blood tests are done on the first day of your assessment. The total amount of blood that is taken is less than the amount given during a regular blood donation.
After you are done, you will go back home and wait while the doctors look at your test results. Once all tests are done, the islet transplant team will look at the results and decide what to do next. In 3 or 4 days, the transplant coordinator will let you know your test results and what will happen next.  What happens if I am a good match for a clinical trial?If you are a good match for a study, you will meet the doctors who are running that study. After you sign the consent form you will meet with a coordinator to go over the plan for your transplant. When you get the call, you will need to go to the hospital quickly (within a few hours at most).
Keep this list with you at all times.Make sure you know ahead of time what you need to pay for and have the money with you. If you have any questions about this, talk to your transplant nurse coordinator or the social worker at the program.Have a bag packed and ready to go.
You will need to monitor your blood sugar regularly, even while in the hospital.   Being on the list does not mean you will get an islet transplant.
Know which friends and family members can help at any time. If your health changes, see your regular doctor soon.
Your center might have a glucose meter with memory, which would allow them to download your readings and compare your glucose control before and after the islet transplant.  THE  TRANSPLANT  PROCEDURE It is your responsibility to be ready when the center calls.
This way, if the transplant is cancelled, you can be reached while you are on your way to the hospital. Even if the center calls you, you may not get the transplant. This is because sometimes doctors cannot get enough cells from the pancreas to make the transplant work. The transplant might be cancelled at any step, and you will be sent home.  Islets extracted from a donor pancreas are infused into the liver. Once implanted, the beta cells in the islets begin to make and release insulin. Islets begin to release insulin soon after transplantation. However, full islet function and new blood vessel growth associated with the islets take time. The doctor will order many tests to check blood glucose levels after the transplant, and insulin is usually given until the islets are fully functional. Where does the pancreas come from?The pancreas comes from the same deceased donors that give hearts, lungs, livers, and kidneys. These people tell their family and friends that they want to give their organs to someone else after they die.
By donating, these people are giving you a chance to have your islet transplant. Transplant centers need one, two, or sometimes three pancreas organs for every islet transplant patient. Because one transplant needs one whole pancreas, a friend or family member  cannot donate a section of their pancreas. This is different from a kidney transplant, where people can donate one kidney and still be healthy with the one they have left.  What happens when I get to the hospital?When you arrive at the hospital, you will be registered and given a room. Your nurse will ask some questions about your medical history, then start an intravenous line (IV) for your medicines.
Your care team will draw blood, perform an EKG and take a chest x-ray. Islet cell transplant is done in the Radiology Department or in the Operating Room.
You will also be asked to monitor your glucose and tell the nurse what your level is each time. In the Radiology Unit, you will get a local anesthetic. This is a drug that will be injected into the right side of your abdomen where the liver is located. The radiologist will then place a needle and a tube into the main vein (portal vein) of the liver.
Using a special x-ray machine (fluoroscopy) and dye, doctors will inject the solution containing the islet tissue.
Then they will remove the tube and take you back to the Nursing Unit where you will remain for several hours.
If you do not take the anti-rejection drugs, your body will destroy the islet cells. You need to monitor your blood sugar levels very carefully.
The transplant team will help you adjust the amount of insulin you need. Remember that the islet cells will take some time to settle into their new home in your liver. We do not want to put stress on the islet cells, so it is important to keep your glucose at a good level.
You do not want to make the new islets work too hard in the beginning. Taking care of your islet cells is like planting seeds in your garden. If you take good care of the cells right after your transplant, you have a better chance of good islet cell function. You can do this by sticking to a healthy diet and taking your medications.  What is rejection?Rejection is the body's natural defense against foreign cells or particles like bacteria and viruses. Your immune system knows that your new islet cells are not part of your own body, so it may reject and destroy them.  What can be done to keep my body from destroying my new islet cells? The doctors will use medicines that slow down your immune system enough to keep it from rejecting your islet cells. Some immunosuppressants are taken by mouth every day and others are given by vein less often.
Because islet transplantation is experimental, it is not yet known what the best immunosuppressive drugs are to prevent rejection. The center will monitor your blood levels closely to make sure you do not reject your islet cells, or have too much of these drugs in your system. Over time, you will need less monitoring.  What can I do to prevent infections?You need to be careful about infections. Here are some things you should do: Use sunscreen (SPF 15) to avoid burning or even tanning.
Not every center gives the same drugs, so ask your center to tell you which ones they prefer to use. Before having your blood drawn, ask your center what time you should stop eating before blood tests and how you should take your medicines.As your islet cells begin to work and your drug levels stabilize, you will need fewer blood tests.
After a while, you may be able to get your blood work done in a lab closer to your home. You will also have your lipids (fat levels) tested.
You are more open to getting infections and cancer due to suppression of your immune system. This can make it harder for you to get another transplant because the immune system will respond much quicker the next time your immune system sees these antigens.
This can affect the success rate of a kidney or other organ transplant.  Weight gainBecause patients can eat a more normal diet after a successful islet transplant, some patients will gain weight.
Researchers need to collect more safety data before these transplants are considered standard care in the United States. We also need to increase our supply of islet cells. We need to do more research so we can learn more about these medicines and develop medicines with fewer side effects.
What an islet cell transplant patient gets to do is exchange insulin shots for immunosuppressive drugs and glucose monitoring.
Patients who used to have irregular glucose levels now take immunosuppressive drugs so they have stable glucose levels. This is a possible long-term treatment for people who suffer from type 1 diabetes.  Can I buy an islet transplant?No.
Patients cannot buy a transplant or pay to have their name put on a transplant list.  Are there risks involved?Yes. As more patients are having transplants, more risks are being observed  How much time does it take to be in a study?The first assessment takes about 10 days. Some centers have patients who have combined kidney and islet transplants, either at the same time or one after the other.
They can also be made ready at a later time, from a different donor, once the new kidney is stable.  What does an islet cell transplant cost?The costs for a transplant are different at each center. The patient usually pays for transportation, housing, and medicines after leaving the hospital. If you need financial help, ask your transplant team if there are other programs that can help you pay for some of your costs. Sometimes the drug companies or clinical trial sponsors pay for the drugs, at least for a while. Diabetes develops when the body doesn't make enough insulin, cannot use insulin properly, or both, causing glucose to build up in the blood. In type 1 diabetes-an autoimmune disease-the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body's immune system has attacked and destroyed them.

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