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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) used to be known as “Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM),” a term you will still hear used today. In T1DM, the body’s immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, known as beta cells. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) used to be known as “Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM),” a term you will also still hear used today.
What Causes Diabetes The Causes of Diabetes Answering the question of what causes diabetes is not as simple and straightforward as most people think. Diabetes Introduction It is important to begin the section on diabetes by emphasizing just how dangerous the disease truly is. To learn more about Type I diabetes, and Type II diabetes, visit our Health articles and Pharmacy news section today! Diabetes and its multiple complications have a significant economic impact on individuals, families, health systems and nations. Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of chronic diseases that affect the way the body breaks down (metabolizes) sugar or glucose – the body’s primary source of energy. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. In Type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes), the pancreas does not make (or makes very little) insulin, which is a hormone that enables glucose to move from the blood vessels into the various cells of the body. This article will focus on Type 2 diabetes — the most common type (90% of all cases). When the pancreas stops making enough insulin, or the body becomes resistant to insulin, Type 2 diabetes develops.
This process does not work correctly in Type 2 diabetes: glucose builds up in the blood, rather than entering cells, because the body is not responding properly to insulin, or not enough insulin is being made. Individuals with type 2 diabetes may not have any symptoms at first, and in fact, may be asymptomatic for years. Over time, diabetes can damage many organs including the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Your Hemoglobin A1c will need to be checked 2-4 times per year (once your diabetes is well-controlled, A1c can be checked every 6 months). If oral medications from different classes still cannot control blood sugar levels, then insulin therapy is added.
Be Physically Active – at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity 3-4 days per week (walk briskly, cycle, jog, swim, play tennis…whatever you enjoy). Lose the ‘Extra’ Pounds – Individuals who are overweight can decrease their risk of diabetes if they lose 10-15% of their body weight. A couple weeks ago, my mom had a double knee replacement surgery and when she came home from the hospital, I was reminded of the importance of being organized when it comes to managing healthcare.
To make it easier for everyone, I made some simple medical printables and attached them to a clipboard for easy record-keeping. Since these organzing printables have been working out so well, I thought I'd make them available as free downloads on my blog. First up is the Prescription Tracker which allows you to keep track of four different medications, for up to two weeks per page. Next up is the Blood Sugar Tracker which can be used with a home glucose monitor, and is a simple way to take random blood sugar readings. This blood pressure log is pretty self explanatory and we use it to keep track of my mom's blood pressure during her physical therapy sessions at home, and at some other random times during the week. This last printable if just to keep track of any notes and progress during my mom's physical therapy sessions. Dealing with health problems, surgeries, and other medical issues is never fun, but staying organized can help you or caregivers to gain a sense of control over situations where you may feel overwhelmed and out of control.
This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. This site is my hobby, and I do not accept donations, though I appreciate those who have offered to help. Unlike the other entities on the "don't miss" list, the patients are already critically sick.
Maceration: Wet keratin eventually tends to break down, destroying its protective function. The result of mast cells degranulating in the skin, immunologically or non-immunologically.
As you would expect, the epidermis blisters and sloughs; separation is at the dermal-epidermal junction. Most people are familiar with the sharply-demarcated salmon-pink, silver-scaled psoriasis plaques.
If you pick off the scales, you'll see multiple punctate bleeding points ("Auspitz's sign"). Scaly patches on the scalp can be psoriasis, seborrhea, or something in-between ("seborrhiasis"). Acanthosis Nigricans is a skin disorder that makes the folds of the skin thicker, darker and velvety.
Though the disorder can strike a person of any gender, descent and age, it is more common in people of African origin.
The symptoms of Acanthosis Nigricans mainly consist of the skin turning darker and more velvety.
Lymphoma or cancerous conditions of the genitourinary or gastrointestinal tracts can also result in Acanthosis Nigricans. Use of medicines like contraceptive pills and human growth hormones can also lead to this disease.
Acanthosis Nigricans can be diagnosed by an expert medical professional by mere physical observation. Acanthosis Nigricans generally disappears after a few days without the need of any treatment. If obesity is found to be a cause, the affected person may have to take up daily exercise to lose weight fast.


When Acanthosis Nigricans affects people older than 40 years, it usually results from an internal malignancy or Adenocarcinoma of the uterus or Gastrointestinal tract. Mild cases of can be treated using a Glucocorticoid Acanthosis Nigricans cream like Panolog. If you are having Acanthosis Nigricans cases in your family or suffering from the disease yourself, it is best to wait for a week or two. Bill was always active and loved deep sea fishing, but when his diabetes began to get out of hand, enough was enough. He is the only Surgeon of Excellence and Venice Regional Bayfront Health is the only designated Center of Excellence in Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery by Surgical Review Corporation (SRC) and the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program in Sarasota, Charlotte and Manatee County.
Type 1 Diabetes is almost entirely genetic, whereas Type 2 Diabetes is largely due to poor diet, lack of exercise, and genetic factors. The reason for this name is that people with T1DM are completely dependent on insulin to control their blood sugars. Once enough of these cells are destroyed, the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin to maintain blood sugar in the normal range and you become hyperglycemic (high blood sugar). The reason for this name is that people with T2DM are not completely dependent on insulin to control their blood sugars because their bodies still have the ability to produce insulin, usually just less insulin than a regular person. Identify your HbA1c test score, mean blood and glucose level to know if your blood glucose is in the optimum level. For example, the WHO estimates that from 2006-2015, China will lose $558 billion in foregone national income due to heart disease, stroke and diabetes alone.
Hyperglycemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.
The exact reason for this is unclear, but contributing factors are excess weight and lack of physical activity. For unclear reasons, people of certain races, namely African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Asian Americans, are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than whites. The risk of getting type 2 diabetes increases after age 45 (likely because people lose muscle mass, exercise less and gain weight as they become older). This is a condition where your blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of kidney failure and irreversible end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis or kidney transplant.
When the tiny blood vessels supplying nerves become damaged, one can develop numbness, tingling, pain or burning that typically starts at the toes or fingertips then spreads upwards or centrally.
Diabetes is an important cause of blindness, resulting from long-term damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. Diabetes can lead to decreased bone mineral density, causing weak and brittle bones, which increases the risk of fractures. Type 2 diabetes has been associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.
Be sure to record each blood glucose reading in a logbook; bring this with you to every doctor visit.
While some people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugar with diet and exercise alone, most people need medications. Insulin must be injected (using a fine needle & syringe, or insulin pen injector) because our digestive system interferes with insulin when taken by mouth. Type 2 diabetics with a BMI (body mass index) > 35 may be candidates for bariatric (weight loss) surgery. So far, they've been very helpful and we'll be bringing the sheets with us for follow-up visits to her various doctors. Even if you're not recovering from a knee replacement surgery, you can choose to download which printable would be most useful for your particular situation.
In each column, you'd write down the name of the medication, the doctor's prescription (ie.
For example in my mom's case, she'll check her blood sugar after fasting for 8 hours on Monday, one hour after breakfast on Tuesday, two hours after lunch on Wednesday, and so on. Each box has space for date, name of therapist, session notes, and little icons you can cross off to note whether it was a home therapy session or at a rehab center.
In rare cases, other areas of the body such as palms, lips and soles of the feet may also be affected. Excess insulin results in production of melanocytes, cells that are the cause of pigmentation in humans. Many obese people suffer from diabetes and endocrine disorders which can trigger Acanthosis Nigricans. However, skin biopsies, X-Rays and endoscopy may be recommended if the doctor suspects diabetes or any cancerous condition to be the cause.
However, persistent symptoms of the disease call for an effective Acanthosis Nigricans cure. For obese people with diabetes Acanthosis Nigricans recovery can be faster with rapid loss of weight. Obese people are frequently seen to suffer from Insulin Resistance, which arises due to Type 2 Diabetes or Pre-Diabetes.
Adenocarcinoma can also affect other regions of the body such as breast, prostate gland, stomach, ovary or lung. This is basically a corticosteroid cream which has antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. When Bill was ready to make a healthy lifestyle change, he went to Venice Regional Bayfront Health because of its excellent reputation.
Type 1 Diabetes is almost entirely genetic and cannot be controlled by exercise and diet; it must be treated with regular insulin injections. Beta cell destruction and consequent T1DM can occur at any age; however, it most commonly occurs in adolescents followed by men in their 30s to 40s. Unlike individuals with T1DM, people with T2DM also have “insulin resistance,” meaning that cells in their bodies do not react to insulin as strongly as they should.


Nearly 7 million people are undiagnosed, and in 2010, 1.9 million new cases were diagnosed in people aged 20 and older. Sadly, type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate among children, teens and younger adults.
In addition, women who give birth to babies weighing over 9 lbs (4.1 kg) are also at higher risk for getting type 2 diabetes.
Neuropathy in the feet can lead to complete loss of feeling, resulting in increased risk of foot injuries and infections (read below). After 15 years of diabetes, ~2% of people become blind, and ~10% develop severe visual impairment (cataracts, glaucoma).
Small cuts and blisters can become large, deep ulcers which can lead to amputations of not only the foot but the entire leg (either below or above the knee amputations). Keep in mind that blood sugar levels vary are influenced by food, exercise, medications, alcohol, sickness, stress and hormones (namely menstrual cycles and menopause in women). Newly-diagnosed diabetes is often treated with metformin, which lowers glucose production in the liver. 55-95% of diabetics can obtain normal blood sugar levels post-surgery, depending on the type of procedure performed. This way, they can see if there's anything we need to watch out for, or that requires further medication. In case you're wondering what the 'M' column stands for, we just use it to note down the initial for each meal type (B for Breakfast, L for Lunch, D for Dinner, or S for Snack) for the days when my mom gets either a 1 or 2 hour blood sugar reading after meals. A high insulin level can result from a number of disorders like pre-diabetes, diabetes and insulin resistance.
Check out these Acanthosis Nigricans images and see whether the patches on your skin are similar to the ones shown here. In such situations, Acanthosis Nigricans can be a sign of life-threatening conditions in the body. Acanthosis Nigricans of the tongue or mucous membrane of the mouth is usually a sign of a tumor in the Gastrointestinal Tract. The disease mainly arises in canines due to Hypothyroidism, Hormonal imbalance, Food allergies and obesity. With bariatric surgery, a single intervention can change the lives of many of these people. Like Bill, obese people can suffer from issues such as Type 2 diabetes, urinary disorders, high blood pressure, heart failure, digestive disorders, gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), sleep apnea, liver problems, depression and a shortened life expectancy. All procedures are performed laparoscopically and include the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric banding and revision procedures. As their ability to produce insulin decreases (which is does progressively over time) and they cannot produce enough insulin to compensate for the insulin resistance of their cells, they become hyperglycemic.
Type 2 diabetes, which occurs over time, develops when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces and becomes resistant to its effects. A deeply concerning fact is that diabetes is no longer a disease of adulthood: 1 in 400 children and adolescents has diabetes. One thought is that the blood vessel damage caused by diabetes could also reduce blood flow to the brain resulting in dementia and stroke.
Physical activity lowers blood sugar, so it is important to check your blood sugar before exercising. If metformin (at increasing doses) is insufficient in controlling blood glucose, additional oral medications may be added, such as glipizide, glyburide or glimepiride which stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin.
Surgeries that bypass a portion of the small intestine are more impactful on blood glucose levels than other types of weight-loss surgeries. Read on to know all about Acanthosis Nigricans, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Obese kids are also at a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes some years later in their lives. As a result, high levels of glucose build up in the bloodstream (“hyperglycemia”); and if untreated, this can be life-threatening. It is also directly related to many serious complications including blindness, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, kidney failure (resulting in dialysis), and permanent damage to nerves and blood vessels. Insulin then enables glucose to move from the blood to various cells (and thus, organs, such as the heart and brain), thus lowering blood glucose levels, which in turn, decreases insulin secretion from the pancreas. Another theory is that too little insulin deprives brain cells of glucose (energy), or that too much insulin causes inflammation which injures brain cells. Eating a snack before a workout can prevent hypoglycemia, especially if you’re taking medications that decrease blood sugar. Surgery, however, is expensive and is associated with risks including a small risk of death. Dietary modifications can help both Acanthosis Nigricans children and adults recover within a month. He had high blood pressure, took 16 pills a day and was about to need daily shots to keep his Type 2 diabetes in check. A pleasant side effect is an improved appearance, although it should not be confused with cosmetic surgery. Chebli focuses on his patients’ complete picture of health, specifically improvements in Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea and lipid disorders. Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy and usually resolves after delivery; however, it increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future. Glucose, a sugar that is the main source of fuel for our organs and muscles, comes from two sources: the food we eat, and the liver. The liver stores and makes glucose (as glycogen) when the body needs it; for example, if you haven’t had a chance to eat for awhile and your blood glucose (and thus, insulin) levels are low, the liver will break down stored glycogen into glucose.




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