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Januvia 100mg (Sitagliptin) is an oral hypoglycemic  medicine which belongs to the group of medicines called selective inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Generic Actos is a good alternative to a brand medication used for diabetes type 2 treatment. Avandia is hypoglycemic medication used to treat diabetes type 2 (insulin non-dependent diabetes). Diabetes is the disease, caused by the absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin and characterizing by the disturbance of the exchange of carbohydrates with hyperglycemia and glucosuria, and also by other metabolism disturbances.
There are different types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, which is characterized by inability of pancreas to produce insulin.
Once people are diagnosed, the primary goals of type 2 diabetes treatments are to control glucose levels and to reduce other conditions that put patients at risk for major complications.
Some people find changes to diet and exercise sufficient treatments for type 2 diabetes, but many others require medication and insulin therapy.
For a long time, scientists have sought to take islet cells from people or even from pigs and place them inside another person. The mice were given white blood cells from a rat’s spleen, which is part of the immune system. For a contribution of $45 (or MORE!), walkers will receive a VERY COOL Shooting Stars Team T-Shirt along with FREE pastries, bagels, and coffee or juice.
Recent breakthroughs in type 2 diabetes treatments promise new treatment options for type 1 diabetics. Less than 20 years ago, the only thing type 1 and type 2 diabetes seemed to have in common was a shared name; they were related conditions but only as distant cousins, and once removed, at that. Doctors and researchers discovered the last decade that, for a variety of reasons, many type 2 diabetics could benefit from taking insulin. There are numerous causes for this, according to Andrea Penney, RN, CDE, with the Joslin Diabetes Center.
That change in thinking about the ways type 2 diabetes evolves indirectly opened the door to considering new ways of thinking about how type 1 diabetes behaves. There is only one treatment besides 54 varieties of insulin approved by the Federal Drug Administration for use by type 1 diabetics, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, and that drug is pramlintide acetate, which is marketed under the name Symlin.
Pramlintide is a small peptide hormone produced in the pancreas and, in people without diabetes, is released alongside insulin after meals or food ingestion, to help reduce high blood sugar. According to the FDA, which approved Symlin for use in treating type 1 diabetes in 2005, “Symlim is an injectable medicine for adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes to control blood sugar. Symlin’s manufacturer, Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., says that Symlin works to reduce blood sugar by generating a feeling of fullness after meals, slowing the rate that the stomach empties after meals, and reduces the release of glucagon from the liver after meals.
Some doctors are also prescribing metformin, which is the most prescribed oral type 2 diabetes treatment in the United States, off label as an adjunct to insulin for type 1 diabetics. Other drugs used to treat type 2 diabetics are being studied to see if they should be submitted to the FDA for approval to treat type 1 diabetics. GLP-1 is a naturally occurring hormone released in the intestine that stimulates the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells when carbohydrates are absorbed in the intestine. Some limited research suggests that GLP-1 treatments might be effective in helping type 1 diabetics better control their blood sugar. A full-scale clinical trial of Victoza on type 1 diabetics is potentially in the works from the maker of Victoza. Then, this January Novo Nordisk started recruiting more than 1,400 subjects for a 52-week trial on the effects of Victoza on type 1 diabetics. Until that trial is completed and the FDA acts, however, Byetta, Victoza, and Bydureon are explicitly not approved for use by type 1 diabetics, according to the product warnings on each drug. If any type 1 diabetic wishes to try the drugs off label (which is the medical jargon for when patients receive a prescription to use a drug for a purpose for which it has not been FDA approved) researchers and doctors suggest consulting with a qualified endocrinologist experienced both in prescribing GLP-1 drugs and treating type 1 diabetics.
Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements.
Generic Actos contains the same active ingredient Pioglitazone HCL as brand medication has. The medication can be used as monotherapy in those patients where physical exercises and diet are not effective to achieved desired level of blood glucose. Generic drug contains the same active ingredient as brand medication - Metformin- however, excipients, manufacturer, form, shape of tablets, commercial name differ.
Generally, the goal is to keep one's blood sugar stable and doctors may set levels specific to each person.
While there is no one diabetes diet, patients are encouraged to eat nutritious, low-calorie foods. Medication regimes are individual, based on each person's medical history, other diseases, and individual factors. They have successfully placed insulin-producing islet cells from one animal species into another without using anti-rejection medicines. Insulin exchanges from human remains have proved difficult, while animal-to-human transplants have been almost impossible.
Researchers at Northwestern University have carried out an islet cell transplant from rats to mice without the use of anti-rejection medicines. They were bathed in chemicals that put the cells into a sleeping condition known as programmed cell death. They entered the spleen and liver of the mice, but soon after, they were destroyed by cells called macrophages. In that process, small pieces of the rat spleen cell ended up on the surface of the macrophages.
She also wants to use what is almost an unlimited supply of pig islet cells for transplants into patients with type 1 diabetes.


Navigating this world of new, and apparently improved drugs, however, is anything but simple or straightforward. The paradigm at the time was that type 1 and type 2 diabetes required different treatments because they were, in fact, very different conditions. The recently realized realities regarding the ways each condition evolves and behaves has led to new ways of treating each type of diabetes and a sharing of therapies between the two.
That shift led to considering whether that door swung both ways and if type 1 diabetics might benefit from treatments designed to treat type 2 diabetes. Symlin is recommended for type 1 diabetics who have not achieved good blood sugar control, which is decided on a case-by-cases basis by a person’s physician.
These drugs, once-daily injectable Victoza, Byetta, and once-weekly injectable Bydureon, are all GLP-1 agonists. Additionally, GLP-1 (which stands for “glucagon like peptide”) is also present in the brain, where it acts as an appetite suppressant and produces one of the same effects of taking Symlin. This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications.
It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Treatments for type 2 diabetes are life-long – there is no pill to cure this chronic disease. Yet metformin (Glucophage) is often prescribed; this diabetes medication lowers glucose production in the liver. There are many different types of insulin and doctors may prescribe a mixture based on individual factors. Doctors may recommend regular exercise, limiting alcohol, the cessation of smoking, among others.
In the future, the transplant operation could provide an unlimited supply of tissue to treat people whose bodies cannot produce insulin.
Xunrong Luo is the head of the Northwestern medical school’s human islet cell transplantation program. This taught the mouse’s immune-system T cells to accept islet cells, which researchers transplanted seven days later. In type 1 diabetes the pancreas stops making insulin so type 1 diabetics injected insulin to replace what the body was no longer producing. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Doctors may have people check their blood sugar daily or several times a week; it varies by individual. They may also prescribe certain medications like ACE inhibitors and diuretics to lower blood pressure, statins and fibrates to lower cholesterol, or aspirin and clopidogrel to control clotting.
American scientists are turning their attention to all the information it has gathered over the past four years.
In most patients, the immune system attacks and destroys the islet cells that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes, however, was a condition in which a person’s pancreas was producing insulin, but their body was not metabolizing and using the hormone efficiently. People can also become insulin resistant due to weight gain or chronic emotional or physical stress. Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site.
Some people can manage their diabetes with changes to diet and exercise, while others require medication.
Type 2 diabetics took oral medications to help improve their ability to metabolize the insulin their bodies were producing. If patients are conscientious, they can still enjoy active, healthy lives, even with the disease. Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested.
Always consult a doctor before beginning an exercise regime, but for most people, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise combined with strength training, most days of the week, is ideal. Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain. Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue. Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health.
Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult.
The main complaints are: thirst, frequent urination, the increased appetite, patients suffer obesity.
Diabetes mellitus can have different complications: microangiopathy, neuropathy, angiopathy of the vessels and skin, muscles, accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on.
Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people.


Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes. The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles.
Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed.
This condition is characterized by intensive production of ketone bodies in the liver and an increased level  in blood.
How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy. People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance. Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly. If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly. With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces.
Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet. People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories.
Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease.
Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative. Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help.
There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination.
Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches. Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'. This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels.
In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine.
Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels. Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars.
Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar. Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime. Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes. Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.



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