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Can European Red Foxes destroy or disrupt food chains in their ecosystems?European Red Foxesare omnivores and eat mostly rodents, eastern cottontail rabbits, frogs, eggs, fish, insects and fruit.
This desiccated environment is the perfect preserver of ancient relics, with the world's oldest mummies (of the Paleolithic Chinchorro tribe), having been discovered in the Atacama, thought to date back to 7000BC.
Research shows that people began to settle in the desert away from the coastal areas around 1500BC.
By 1000AD, the area came under the control of the Tiwanaku of Bolivia, and then in 1450 the Inca Empire swept in briefly before the desert came under the power of the Spanish.
During the 19th century, the desert became the setting for border disputes, as Chile, Bolivia and Peru fought for control of the land and its rich deposits of sodium nitrate. Today, the desert's population is approximately one million, with most people living in the coastal cities but some in the small oasis communities and mining camps.
The course of the Atacama Crossing takes competitors across a wide variety of terrains and includes approximately 1,683 meters (5,521 feet) of ascents and 2,508 meters (8,228 feet) of descents over the 7-day race.
Starting at just below 3,200 meters (10,500 feet) in the Arcoiris Valley, the race gradually descends over the six stages to finish in the pretty town of San Pedro de Atacama at an elevation of 2,400 meters (7,900 feet). Competitors will tackle sand-dunes, river crossings, gravel, loose rocks, hard packed earth and even waist high grass during the event. During each stage checkpoints are located approximately every 10 kilometers (6 miles) along the course.
Please note that adverse weather and other factors can result in changes being made to the course.
At the Overnight Checkpoint, there will usually be a tent in which competitors can sleep as well as a campfire or stove where hot water is available for drinks and meals.
The Atacama Crossing (Chile) is part of the 4 Deserts Series, named by TIME magazine as one of the Top 10 Endurance Competitions in the world. The Atacama Crossing (Chile) 2016 starts on 2 October and is the twelfth anniversary edition of the event. The Atacama Desert is recognized as thedriest place on earth - it is 50 times more arid than California's Death Valley.
The Atacama Desert has the most lunar-like landscape on Earth and is frequently used by NASA to test its planetary rover vehicles. Up to200 competitors representing more than 40 countries are expected to compete in the Atacama Crossing 2015.
The fastest finish time on any Atacama Crossing course is held by Vicente Garcia Beneito of Spain with an overall time of 23 hours and 46 minutes in 2012.
The fastest women's finishon any Atacama Crossing course is held by Anne-Marie Flammersfeld of Germany with an overall time of 29 hours and 49 minutes in 2012.
Approximately 20% of competitors run the entire course, 60% combine running with walking, and 20% walk the entire course. The Atacama Crossing is a self-supported race; competitors must carry everything they needfor seven days on their backs. Many competitors raise money and awareness for charities around the globe through their participation in the Atacama Crossing. Competitors use laptops in a specially designated Cybertent to write blogs and exchange emails during the event. During the Atacama Crossing, competitors, volunteers and staff are expected to consume approximately 15,000 liters of water in total. Competitors are required to pass through up to 30 checkpoints throughout the seven-day event before crossing the finish line.
2: Is the Atacama Crossing an ultramarathon, adventure race, expedition race or other extreme race? Deserts are separated into four categories: subtropical, cool coastal, cold winter and polar. You may complete the Atacama Crossing (Chile), Gobi March (China) and Sahara Race (Namibia) at any time.
There is no qualification required to take part in the Atacama Crossing, but competitors must be healthy and maintain a certain level of fitness.
The typical competitor is a high achiever - someone who believes in maximizing every opportunity in life.
Our competitors are busy people - we don't expect them to train all the time, but a minimum amount of training is expected. Expert articles prepared by doctors, health and sports professionals on a variety of topics related to training, preparation and medical care. The expert article titled Preparing for an Event is a particularly useful to help get started. Competitor blogs are a great way to collect training tips to implement into a personal training plan.
The entry fee for the Atacama Crossing includes almost everything from the arrival at the event hotel in San Pedro de Atacama on Friday before the event start until departure on Sunday after the event conclusion.
A fully qualified team of medical doctors from United States, many of whom have attended a number of 4 Deserts events over the years, works at each event. During the race, there is a medical doctor at each checkpoint to offer assistance and care on the course. Competitors must carry ALL mandatory equipment items, including food and electrolytes, at all times during the event.

At the end of each stage, competitors, volunteers and staff gather in incredible campsites managed by a local camp team. We provide information on common flight routes and local contacts to help competitors make arrangements to get to Chile. The Atacama Crossing website is updated daily during the event with real time breaking news, stage updates, results, competitor blogs, features, and hundreds of photos and videos. Each event highlights an indigenous culture in the region with the hope of preserving the culturefor generations to come. Many say that the best part of the event is meeting other competitors and making new friends from all over the world.
Download the Equipment List to make sure that you know what is required for each mandatory equipment item. Competitors are required to carry two light sources during the event one must be a headlamp or handheld torch. Any model of compass is adequate however, a compass as a part of a watch is not sufficient. Bring an adequate 7-day supply (at least 12 mild pain relief pills) so that you are not dependent on medication from the event medical team.
Important Note: You should seek advice from your doctor about any medication that you plan to take during the race, including any form of painkillers.
A minimum of 10 safety pins are required for attaching your bib number and event patch and for multiple uses during the event. Two pairs of socks are required, but 6-7 pairs are recommended to allow for a fresh pair for each day on the course. It is required that you wear a cap with a neck cover (such as legionnaire design) or have a cap with a Buff to cover both your head and neck. You must provide your own nationality patches to wear on both sleeves of all tops (including jackets) throughout the event. Bottles: These allow for more flexibility they can be attached to the shoulder straps of your backpack, put in a front pack, kept in the backpack with a Platypus Drink Tube or carried by hand. If you expect to spend more than 30 hours on the course then you should increase this accordingly. The rainless plateau stretches 960 kilometers (600 miles) south from the border of Peru and its average width is less than 160 kilometers (100 miles) wide between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains, and its centre is recognized as the driest place on earth. Huge geoglyphic paintings adorn hillsides and ruins of Indian fortresses and sacred Inca sites dot the landscape. The Atacameno, who were noted for their fortified towns known as pucaras, were originally hunters in search of water, but soon began to domesticate llamas, and grow maize eventually settling the oases of Calama, San Pedro de Atacama between 100BC and 400AD.
Copper mines began to proliferate in the 1950s, and can still be seen today as in the rescue of the miners of the San Jose copper-gold mine in August 2010. The Altiplano is still the home to descendants of the region's pre-Columbian natives, the Aymara and Atacama Indians, who live the age-old lifestyles of herding llamas and alpacas and growing crops.
This is in addition to the infamous salt flats that even the most dexterous of runners find nearly impossible to cross at full-speed. Generally, this stage is between 70 and 90 kilometers (43 to 56 miles) long, roughly double the length of the previous four stages. Some of the oldest mummies found on earth come from the Atacama Desert, dating as far back as 7000 years. Temperatures, however, range widely and the desert climate can be extremely hot during the day and cold at night. The fastest completion time is expected to be around 25 hours and the slowest around 70 hours.
The average backpack weighs 9 The Atacama Crossing is a self-supported race; competitors must carry everything they needfor seven days on their backs.
The only assistance provided to them is water (plenty) for drinking and making food, tents to sleep in at night, and medical and management support. The 4 Deserts are located in the largest desert of each category, also representing the driest, hottest, coldest and windiest places on Earth. There is no specific order in which you must do the events, and you do not have to complete all three.
All competitors are required to submit a medical form with information on fitness level, a form with emergency contact details and a stamped doctor's certificate two months before the event. Our competitors generally work full time, some have families, many perform community service and all lead healthy lifestyles. Competitors typically arrive two days before the start of the event and are free to leave any time after the event concludes. Approximately 20% of competitors will run most of the course, 60% combine running with walking, and 20% will walk the entire course.
Some competitors complete the event with minimal training; others want to win and spend many more hours training. All of the articles are available on the RacingThePlanet Store website and in a special Competitor Area of the Atacama Crossing website. The blogs also provide a way for competitors to share questions and advice with one another. We recommend that prospective competitors complete an online registration as early as possible and at least six months before the start of the race.

Most doctors are emergency physicians with affiliations at Stanford University and other reputable medical schools. There is also a medical tent located at every campsite where competitors can seek medical assistance or advice. An equipment list with mandatory gear requirements can be found on the equipment page of the Atacama Crossing website. Note that the backpack weight will decrease each day as food is eaten and items are used along the course.
The desert campsites are typically located in spectacular places with clear views of the nighttime skies.
We also provide information on staying additional nights at the hotel, airport transfers, domestic flights (as required) and other travel arrangements. Those interested in volunteering should complete a volunteer application as early as possible - we accept volunteers on a rolling basis and receive many more applications than we can accept. At the Atacama Crossing, competitors experience the friendship and warmth of both the Chileans and the Atacamenos. Many competitors meet up after the event, stopping to have dinner when passing through another competitor's hometown or getting together regularly for social events. The Last Desert (Antarctica) is only open to those who have completed at least two of the other 4 Deserts events, including the Atacama Crossing (Chile), Gobi March (China) and the Sahara Race (Namibia). Mandatory equipment will be reviewed at Competitor Check-In at the host hotel and on the course during the week of the event. There is a chance of rain, and it is vital that you keep the contents of your backpack (in particular, your sleeping bag and camp clothes) dry. If you are sensitive to cold temperatures you may want to look at combinations below this temperature.
This is to be attached to the rear of your backpack and switched on when you are on the course in the dark. We recommend a thick bag that you can repack easily as you may want to use it over your sleeping bag in cold or wet weather conditions.
If you do not bring enough supplies, you could be at risk of developing more severe blisters that could jeopardize your ability to finish the race.recommended. Consider buying your shoes 1 to 2 sizes larger than you would normally wear to account for swelling and tape for blisters. Only 1 pair is mandatory but it is recommended to take 2 pairs as sunglasses are often lost or broken. We advise having capacity for 1.5 liters in bottles or a bladder that are easy to access and fill up. It is strongly recommended to bring a mixture of electrolyte tablets and electrolyte drink powders. It is vital that you test your electrolyte plan during your training and follow the amounts recommended on the packets. Red Foxes hunt alone and are nocturnal, so they usually hunt at night.European Red Foxes are able to destroy food chains. In recent years, NASA has been testing instruments and vehicles for Mars missions in the Atacama's dry and rugged landscapes. The events do not fit into the classic definitions of ultramarathon, adventure race or expedition race.
The Atacama Crossing takes place in the Atacama Desert which is the largest cool coastal desert in the world and represents the driest desert of the 4 Deserts series. However, if you are interested in competing in The Last Desert (Antarctica), then you must have successfully completed at least two of the other 4 Deserts in order to qualify. Our competitors consist of medical doctors, professors, investment bankers, small business owners, actors, entrepreneurs, journalists, top athletes and coaches, military professionals, managers and stay-at-home moms and dads. Note that this is a self-supported race, so each competitor must bring the mandatory medical items listed in the equipment list. The volunteer team works hard during the event, but the job is fun and very rewarding - many volunteers return to 4 Deserts events year after year. Many of our competitors have raised significant amounts of money for charities all over the world. According to the desert food chain, if they eat all the snakes, rodents and lizards, the hawk will have no food in return, leaving it to suffer of starvation. The course has been set up to pass through one of the most beautiful, pristine and untouched land on Earth.
Please read the expert article called Painkillers Used during Ultramarathons for more details. This could happen if the foxes have a large population in deserts.In the forest food chain, the fox eats birds and rodents, so if they ate all the birds, there is a slight chance that insects can over populate. The insects could over populate if most of the birds are gone, but the insects might not over populate, as there are oppossums and skunks that also eat them.In the top food chain, the foxes eat mainly rodents and birds.
The hawks and owls will also suffer if the foxes eat all the rodents and birds, leaving nothing for the hawks and owls to eat, which could lead to the extinction of them.European Red FoxesEXTRA!

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