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10.02.2015
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Many other frog species camouflage themselves in the wild, but the poison dart frog uses its brightly colored skin to warn predators that it is unfit to eat. Make a symbolic adoption to help save some of the world's most endangered animals from extinction and support WWF's conservation efforts. GenusArtibeus (1)Named for the island from which it was first described (2) (3), the Jamaican fruit-eating bat is a relatively large, thickset bat with short, velvety fur, broad wings and no external tail (2) (3) (4) (5). The Jamaican fruit-eating bat shows considerable variation in size across it wide range, and a number of subspecies have been recognised (2) (3) (6) (7).
Jamaican fruit-eating bat biologyAs its name suggests, the Jamaican fruit-eating bat feeds mainly on fruit, particularly figs (Ficus species), although some pollen, nectar, flowers, leaves and insects are also taken (2) (3) (4) (5) (8).
The Jamaican fruit-eating bat has a unique breeding pattern, closely tied to seasonal peaks in food abundance (8). Adult female Jamaican fruit-eating bats usually roost together in small a€?haremsa€™ of up to 14 or more individuals plus their young, defended by one or occasionally two adult males (2) (3) (5) (10).
Jamaican fruit-eating bat rangeThe Jamaican fruit-eating bat is widespread across Central and South America, from Sinaloa, Michoacan and Tamaulipas in Mexico, south to Ecuador and Peru. Jamaican fruit-eating bat habitatThis species occurs in a range of habitats, including tropical evergreen forest, seasonal dry forest, cloud forest, and even human-modified habitats such as gardens and plantations (2) (4) (6). Jamaican fruit-eating bat threatsThe Jamaican fruit-eating bat is an abundant and widespread species and is not currently considered at risk of extinction (1). Jamaican fruit-eating bat conservationThere are not known to be any specific conservation measures currently in place for this common bat.
AuthenticationThis information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. For the first time ever, more than 8,000 scientists from the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) have come together to identify 100 of the most threatened animals, plants and fungi on the planet.
Jonathan Baillie, ZSL's Director of Conservation explains: "The donor community and conservation movement are leaning increasingly towards a 'what can nature do for us' approach, where species and wild habitats are valued and prioritised according to the services they provide for people.
The report, called Priceless or Worthless?, will be presented at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in South Korea this week, and hopes to push the conservation of "worthless" creatures up the agenda that is set by NGOs from around the globe.


Co-author of the report, ZSL's Ellen Butcher says: "All the species listed are unique and irreplaceable. Their declines have mainly been caused by humans, but in almost all cases scientists believe their extinction can still be avoided if conservation efforts are specifically focused. The 100 species, from 48 different countries are first in line to disappear completely if nothing is done to protect them.
The pygmy three-toed sloth (Bradypus pygmaeus) is one of the animals facing a bleak future. Similarly, the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) is one of the most threatened mammals in Southeast Asia. In the UK, a small area in Wales is the only place in the world where the brightly colored willow blister (Cryptomyces maximus) is found.
While monetizing nature remains a worthwhile necessity for conservationists, the wider value of species on the brink of extinction should not be disregarded, the report states. To learn about climate change and the species that are affected, visit our climate change pages. The head is large, with large eyes, while the ears are pointed, triangular and quite widely separated, and there is a well-developed noseleaf (2) (3) (4).
However, there is disagreement over whether one of these, Artibeus jamaicensis planirostris, represents a distinct species (1) (2) (7). Fruits are not consumed in the fruiting tree itself, but are instead carried to a nearby feeding roost (2) (3) (5) (8), where the fruit is chewed and the juices swallowed, while any fibrous material is spat out in the form of a chewed pellet (3).
In some locations, the species may breed year-round, but in other areas the female usually gives birth twice a year, to a single young at a time, with the births coinciding with periods of peak food availability (usually at the end of the wet season). These harems usually roost in tree hollows, or close together in caves, and the male spends much of its time close to the roost site, keeping away rivals. It also occurs in the Caribbean, including the Greater and Lesser Antilles and the southern Bahamas, and in the lower Florida Keys (1) (2) (3) (5) (6).
It also roosts in a wide variety of structures, including hollow trees, caves, rock fissures, dense vegetation and occasionally buildings, and has even been known to modify large leaves into roosts, biting through the central vein of the leaf so that it folds over to make a a€?tenta€™ (2) (3) (4) (5) (6).
However, it is reported to occur in a number of protected areas throughout its range (1), which may give its populations some measure of protection. But conservationists fear they'll be allowed to die out because none of these species provide humans with obvious benefits. This has made it increasingly difficult for conservationists to protect the most threatened species on the planet.


Conservation actions deliver results with many species such as Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus) and Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) have being saved from extinction.
Escudo Island, 17 km off the coast of Panama, is the only place in the world where these tiny sloths are found. Known as the Asian unicorn because of its rarity, the population of these antelope may be down to few tens of individuals today. Populations of the spore-shooting fungi are currently in decline, and a single catastrophic event could cause their total destruction.
The fur of the Jamaican fruit-eating bat is dark brown, greyish or black on the upperparts, and the individual hairs have white bases, giving a slightly silvery tinge. Food moves very rapidly through the bata€™s digestive system, passing out in under 30 minutes, and this species is believed to be an important seed disperser, especially for figs (2) (4) (5) (9). Although the usual gestation period is 3.5 to 4 months, during the second pregnancy of the year the embryo is able to become dormant, delaying normal development for up to 2 months, so that overall development takes up to 6 months and the young is born when conditions are more favourable.
Small groups of bachelor males or juvenile females also form, often roosting in vegetation or in leaf a€?tentsa€™, or in separate parts of caves (4) (5) (8) (10).
There is some debate about the southern extent of the speciesa€™ distribution, with some reporting it to occur as far south as Brazil and Argentina, while others attribute this to a distinct species, A. At half the size of their mainland cousins, and weighing roughly the same as a newborn baby, pygmy sloths are the smallest and slowest sloths in the world and remain Critically Endangered. The underparts are usually paler, and the wings and narrow, naked tail membrane are black or brown. However, these groups are less stable than the harems and often shift roosting site (8) (10).
The face usually bears four pale stripes, both above and below the eyes, although these may sometimes be faint (2) (3) (4) (5) (6).
The young bats start to fly at around 31 to 51 days old, and reach adult size after about 80 days.
Sexual maturity is reached at 8 to 12 months (2) (5), and this species may live for up to 9 years in the wild (2) (3).



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