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MarjoramOriganum MajoranaMarjoram is a woody perennial herb native to countries bordering the Mediterranean. ThymeThymus vulgarisThyme is native to western Mediterranean and southern Italians regions.
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is an invasive herb that has spread throughout much of the United States over the past 150 years, becoming one of the worst invaders of forests in the American Northeast and Midwest. Garlic mustard has a biennial life cycle, that is, it takes two years to fully mature and produce seeds. Identification of first year plants can be difficult; the task is made easier by smelling the garlic odor produced when the leaves of the plant are crushed. Garlic mustard has the potential to form dense stands that choke out native plants in the understory by controlling light, water, and nutrient resources. Chemical applications can also be effective for controlling garlic mustard, particularly in areas too large for removal by hand. The best method for controlling garlic mustard, or any other invasive plant, is to prevent its establishment. Garlic chives or Chinese chives as they are sometimes known are used extensively in Chinese and Asian cooking.
Garlic chives can add a subtle garlic flavor in uncooked dishes where garlic would be overwhelming. Garlic chive bread is also good particularly in white breads where the chives can be clearly seen through the dough. While it is usually found in the undergrowth of disturbed woodlots and forest edges, recent findings have shown that garlic mustard has the ability to establish and spread even in pristine areas.
It is believed that garlic mustard was introduced into North America for medicinal purposes and food. Seeds germinate in February to early March of the first year and grow into a short rosette by the middle of the summer. The basal leaves of an immature plant are dark-green and kidney shaped with round teeth (scalloped) along the edges; average size of the leaves is 6 to 10 cm in diameter. Flowers develop on an unbranched (occasionally weakly branched) stalk and have 4 small white petals arranged symmetrically.
Plants most affected by these dense stands are herbaceous species that occur in similar moist soil forest habitats and grow during the spring and early summer season. Herbivores, or animals that eat plant material, such as deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and woodchucks (Marmota monax) only remove up to 2% of the leaf area in a stand of garlic mustard (Evans et al.

Pulling by hand must remove at least the upper half of the root to prevent a new stalk from forming; this is most easily accomplished in the spring when the soil is soft.
In dense stands where other plant species are not present, a glyphosate-based herbicide such as Roundup® can be an effective method for removal. Disturbances in the forest understory that would allow for rapid invasion should be minimized. Their subtle garlic flavour is much milder and sweeter than the common chive and the onion flavour is not so strong.
This spread has allowed it to become the dominant plant in the undergrowth of some forests, greatly reducing the diversity of all species. The earliest known report of it growing in the United States dates back to 1868 on Long Island, NY. In the plant's second year, a stalk develops, flowers form, and the plant dies by June. Although unsupported by the lack of long-term research into garlic mustard impacts, the plant has been circumstantially tied to decreased native herbaceous species richness in invaded forests. Hand-pulling should be performed before seeds are formed and needs to be continued for up to five years in order to deplete any established seed bank.
Glyphosate herbicides are non-selective, so caution must be used when non-target species are in the area.
Investigations on potential biological control agents of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata (Bieb. Distribution and spread of the invasive biennial garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in North America, pp.
They differ from the common chive, having a flat or strap like leaf and white tubular flowers which are edible. Garlic mustard is one of very few non-native plants to be able to successfully invade forest understories. It has since spread throughout the eastern United States and Canada as far west as Washington, Utah, and British Columbia. Siliques, four-sided seedpods, develop in May, containing small black seeds lined up in a row.
In its second year, the alternating stem leaves become more triangular shaped, 1 to 5 cm long, and have sharper teeth, with leaves becoming gradually smaller towards the top of the stalk. Researchers have found that garlic mustard is allelopathic (it releases chemicals that hinder the growth of other plant species) and has inhibited growth of both grasses and herbs in laboratory settings (Michigan State University, 2008).

This level of herbivory is ineffective in controlling reproduction or survival of garlic mustard.
This method works best in smaller pockets of invasion or in areas recently invaded to help prevent the development of a seed bank. Chemical applications are most affective during the spring (March-April) when garlic mustard is one of the few plants actively growing. Monitoring the forest understory and removing any garlic mustard plants as soon as they are introduced will help to prevent the establishment and spread of this invader. On average, a garlic mustard plant will produce 22 siliques, each of which can contain as many as 28 seeds. Mature flowering plants reach 3.5 feet tall, although shorter flowering specimens may be found.
Some researchers also believe that these compounds may hinder the beneficial relationships some plant species have with soil fungi (Roberts and Anderson, 2001). Although 69 herbivorous insects have been found to be associated with garlic mustard in Europe, less than a dozen have been found on North American infestations of the species (Hinz and Gerber, 1998). Fall applications may be used; however other plant species still in their growing season may be harmed. A particularly vigorous plant may produce as many as 7,900 seeds (Nuzzo, 1993) although the average is more likely to be in the 600 seed range. As with the younger plants, second year plants have a garlic odor when crushed but the odor is less obvious with increasing age. Experimental trials have shown that removal of garlic mustard leads to increased diversity of other species, including annuals and tree seedlings (MSU, 2008). Readers are advised to check with local regulatory agencies to determine the regulations involved with chemical treatments. The seeds generally germinate within one to two years, but may remain viable for up to five years in the seed bank.

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Category: Herbal Treatment For Ed

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