Enzymes of the gi tract naturally,probiotic supplements for stomach flu,biogas rehau - Plans On 2016

Before we discuss the treatment of colorectal cancer, let’s review a few points of anatomy. Our digestive tract is a tube that starts at the mouth, includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine (also called colon), and ends at the rectum and anus.
As food travels down this canal, it is processed into small particles by various chemicals called enzymes. The large intestine is the last portion of the alimentary canal and consists of the colon and the rectum. The last eight or ten inches of the digestive tract, the rectum, lies deep inside the pelvis.
The cells of the mucosa reproduce and die very rapidly—renewing the lining of the colon approximately every six days.
Arteries and veins carry blood to and from the intestine, supplying it with oxygen, and collecting nutrients to be used by the body. By examining the lymph nodes for presence of cancer cells, one can get a good indication of whether the tumor has begun to spread from the colon to the rest of the body.
Enteroendocrine cells include G-cells, which produce gastrin, enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs), which produce histamine, and others that produce somatostatin and serotonin.
Mucous neck cells produce a thin, watery, acidic mucus, the purpose of which is an ongoing area of investigation. The plicae circulares are circular folds of mucosa and submucosa that impart a spiral movement to chyme, allowing more mixing with intestinal secretions and greater absorption. Microvilli (the brush border) are projections from the apical surface of each epithelial cell which further increase the surface area for absorption and also contain enzymes (brush border enzymes) that complete digestion of nutrients.


The submucosa contains Peyer's patches, aggregated lymph nodules (MALT), which increase in number along the length of the small intestine (there are more in the large intestine).
The submucosa also contains duodenal glands (Brunner's glands), which secrete alkaline mucus to raise the pH and protect the wall of the duodenum. There are no modifications for absorption like in the small intestine and no cells that produce digestive enzymes. Haustral contractions are slow contractions that occur about every 30 minutes and last approximately 1 minute. Mass movements are long, slow moving, powerful contractions that move over the colon 3 or 4 times per day, typically after meals. In addition to these movements some segmentation occurs in the descending and sigmoid colon to increase water absorption before mass movements propel the feces into the rectum.
The particles are gradually absorbed into the blood stream, to be distributed throughout the body and to serve as a source of energy.
A circular band of muscles, called the anal sphincter surrounds the anus to keep it closed, so that stool does not leak out.
This rapid turnover is one of the factors that may lead to cancerous changes within the cells. The villi have capillaries and lacteals in the lamina propria for nutrient absorption (most dietary fat is absorbed by the lacteals, specialized lymphatic capillaries).
Paneth cells deep in the crypts secrete lysozyme, an enzyme that degrades bacterial cell walls. Distension or irritation of the mucosa by hypotonic or acidic chyme stimulates the release of intestinal juice, around 1 - 2 liters per day.


Bacteria also produce biotin and vitamin K, which are absorbed through the intestinal wall.
This gastrocolic reflex accompanies the gastroileal reflex stimulated by gastrin release when the stomach recieves food. If cancer invades the area near the anal sphincter, or if the muscles around the sphincter need to be damaged during surgery to remove the cancer, the surgeon will create an alternative opening at the end of the digestive track, called a colostomy. The anal epithelium hangs in long folds (anal columns) in the superior portion of the anus.
Along the way, lymphatic fluid is filtered through small bean-shaped structures called lymph nodes, which trap debris such as bacteria, or escaped cancer cells. The anal sinuses are the recesses between the anal columns; they secrete mucus when compressed by feces, which aids passage of feces out of the anus. It contains cells that help absorb the digested food or the excess water, and help keep bacteria out of the blood stream.
You may think of the lymphatic system as a network of sewer lines, although it also plays an important role in your immune defense system. The human body has an ability to compensate for the loss of part, or even most, of the colon without major loss of efficiency.



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