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Weight Control: Energy Consumed versus Energy Spent Basic Metabolic Rate (BMR) [easy formula 25 x wt.
Chapter 25 The Digestive System General anatomy & digestive processes Mouth through esophagus Stomach Liver, gallbladder & pancreas Small intestine Chemical. The Digestive System Also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or the alimentary system, it is responsible for breaking down the complex food into. The Digestive System Also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or the alimentary system, it is responsible for breaking down the complex food into simple nutrients the body can absorb and convert into energy. Figure 24-2 Structures of the stomach and duodenum, including the common bile duct and pancreatic duct.
Small Intestine Approximately 20 to 25 feet long and is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the chyme (semi-liquid mass of partially digested food).
Large Intestine Also known as the colon, the large intestine is responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes, and salts. Some of the hormones control the regulation of the entire digestive process –some even regulate the appetite. The hormones produced in the mucosa cells of the stomach and small intestines work by stimulating these organs and their digestive juices.
To start contributing, enable JavaScript by changing your browser options, then try again. Major Activities of Digestive System Ingestion Ingestion Mechanical Processing Mechanical Processing Digestion.
INTRODUCTION n DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN OF FOOD SO IT CAN BE TAKEN INTO THE BLOOD STREAM. HCl in the stomach aids in proteolysis, and hormones secreted by intestinal cells direct the digestive processes.


The three hormones responsible for the digestion of our food are gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK). It also plays an important role in the growth of the stomach, small intestine and colon lining – which, as we now know, is needed for absorbing nutrients and excreting digestive juices. Since Na and Cl are reabsorbed back, a high saliva flow rate would lead to a high concentration in the saliva and vice versa, not low. The distal end of the rectum forms the anal canal composed of muscles that control defecation.
In the pancreas, a call from Secretin causes the excretion of those helpful digestive juices. Then Secretin calls the stomach, causing it to produce pepsin, an enzyme used to digest protein. Bowen, 2002) water electrolytes mucus enzymes The fluid flows out of the acini into collecting ducts. Once the gallbladder hears from CCK, it knows to release all the bile it has been storing for the liver. As we mentioned, a few hormones also work to encourage us to start and stop eating that food.
The first of these is ghrelin, which both the stomach and small intestine produce when there is no food in them. The formation of saliva is especially important in patients suffering from abnormalities with salivary output.
For example, decreased salivation may result in a deterioriation of oral health such as oral pain, increased susceptibility to dental caries and infections by opportunistic microorganisms. In addition saliva plays a critical part in treatment planning and the effects it has on the denture making process.


Anatomy of Salivary Glands Saliva is produced by a number of specialized glands which discharge into the oral cavity. Bowen, 2002) Minor Salivary Glands - these glands are dotted throughout the mouth within the lamina propia and oral mucosa.
Hence only the mucous cells are white, due to the presence of mucous in the cell.Stucture of Salivary Glands Salivary glands consists of clustered secreting acini end pieces attached to freely branching ductal system.
Introduction Secretion of saliva is initiated by reflexly induced nerve impulses, which will be elaborated below under ANS Control of salivation depends on neurotransmitter release from the nerve endings in the salivary glands, which will be further elaborated below under the physiological aspect.
711-713) if these glands get diseased, damaged, or affected by drugs, they may not make enough saliva, leading to dry mouth or a condition known as hypofuntion. 6-13) Sympathetic Nerves: may occur when in certain situations, fear, stress or anger are aroused, or during hard physical exercise. Lysyl-bradykinin stimulates the blood vessels and capillaries of the salivary gland to vasodilate and increased capillary permeability respectively. 6-13) Formation of saliva is due to a unilateral, central reflex because stimulation of one side of the mouth induces ipsilateral salivation where the flow rate is dependent on the intensity of the stimulus applied. This leads to vasodilatation and an increased blood flow, resulting in increased secretion of saliva from the gland. 711-713) The secretory acinus produces the primary saliva, which is isotonic with an ionic composition resembling that of plasma. In the duct system, the primary saliva is then modified by selective reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- (without water) and secretion of K+ and HCO3-.



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