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03.12.2014

What causes tinnitus and hearing loss, meniere's tinnitus - Test Out

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The library is an integral part of a project being developed by FAPESP - Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo, in partnership with BIREME - the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. The interface also provides access to the full text of articles via author index or subject index, or by a search form on article elements such as author names, words from title, subject, words from the full text and publication year. There are many factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing tinnitus. Another hypothesis is that tinnitus develops because of changes in how the brain processes sound in response to altered input from the cochlea.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) occurs when loud noise damages the working of the inner ear and causes hearing loss. Roughly 20% of adults in the US, about 48 million people, report some degree of hearing loss.
According to the American Tinnitus Association, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) and tinnitus is currently the number one service connected disability of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Recreational activities that can put someone at risk for NIHL include target shooting and hunting, snowmobile riding, listening to MP3 players at high volume through earbuds or headphones, playing in a band and attending loud concerts. Hearing depends on a series of events that change sound waves in the air into electrical signals. If a neuron in the auditory cortex is not getting input from the hearing nerve, it might well pick up electrical activity in an adjacent region and respond to that. Tinnitus (pronounced ti-ni-tis), or ringing in the ears, is the sensation of hearing ringing, buzzing, hissing, chirping, whistling, or other sounds. Although tinnitus is often associated with hearing loss, it does not cause the loss, nor does a hearing loss cause tinnitus. Some instances of tinnitus are caused by infections or blockages in the ear, and the tinnitus can disappear once the underlying cause is treated. Certain drugs -- most notably aspirin, several types of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, sedatives, and antidepressants, as well as quinine medications; tinnitus is cited as a potential side effect for about 200 prescription and nonprescription drugs.


Tinnitus can worsen in some people if they drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, drink caffeinated beverages, or eat certain foods. Harmful noises at home may come from lawnmowers, leaf blowers and shop or woodworking tools.
The auditory nerve then carries the signals to the brain for processing and interpretation.
Sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate and transmit the vibrations to three tiny bones in the middle ear. The bones in the middle ear amplify and transmit the vibrations from the air to fluid vibrations in the cochlea of the inner ear, which is shaped like a snail and filled with fluid.
As fluid is churned in the cochlea from vibration coming from the middle ear bones, the fluid rushes past these hairs and causes them to bend. When the cells are presented with an overstimulation of their frequency their supportive structure becomes swollen and can rupture, destroying the hair cell. Exacerbation of noise-induced hearing loss in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLAST. In fact, some people with tinnitus experience no difficulty hearing, and in a few cases they even become so acutely sensitive to sound (hyperacusis) that they must take steps to muffle or mask external noises. For reasons not yet entirely clear to researchers, stress and fatigue seem to worsen tinnitus. But ringing in the ears that does not get better or go away is an ear condition called tinnitus. In order to better understand this, it is necessary to first understand the basics of how hearing operates and then review how noise damages hearing and its effects on the ears and brain.
There are two types of hair cells, Outer Hair Cells (OHC), which amplify the vibrations, and Inner Hair Cells (IHC), which transform the vibrations into electrical nerve impulses. The bending of these hairs opens a sort of trap door underneath them, allowing the potassium-rich fluid they live in to reach a sodium-filled fluid underneath, and potassium mixed with sodium makes electricity. This excess glutamate overexcites the neurons and causes them to fire continuously until they become chemically depleted and eventually die.


So, even though there is no real sound being generated at that frequency, it sounds as if there is and that, by definition, is tinnitus. In severe cases, however, tinnitus can cause people to have difficulty concentrating and sleeping. In such a case, other therapies -- both conventional and alternative -- may bring significant relief by either decreasing or covering up the unwanted sound. The noise causes permanent damage to the sound-sensitive cells of the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ in the inner ear.
Calcium ions then enter the cell and trigger the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate. When hearing loss occurs, certain brain neurons lack input in the regions where the hearing loss is most severe.
It may eventually interfere with work and personal relationships, resulting in psychological distress. Carpenters, pilots, rock musicians, street-repair workers, and landscapers are among those whose jobs put them at risk, as are people who work with chain saws, guns, or other loud devices or who repeatedly listen to loud music. The sound may keep time with your heartbeat, it may keep pace with your breathing, it may be constant, or it may come and go. The most common cause of tinnitus is hearing loss that occurs with aging, but it can also be caused by living or working around loud noises.
Hearing loss treatments depend on the cause and include hearing aids, sound-amplifying devices, and antibiotics if the cause is an infection. There are a variety of causes of hearing loss besides congenital hearing loss, including ear infections, genetic disorders, illnesses that trigger hearing loss, head injuries, medications, and more. Some children may develop hearing loss because of listening to loud music or other loud noises.




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