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13.06.2015

What causes ringing in the ears and pressure, ocd symptoms dsm 5 - For Begninners

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Constant noise in the head -- such as ringing in the ears -- rarely indicates a serious health problem, but it sure can be annoying. Tinnitus (pronounced tih-NITE-us or TIN-ih-tus) is sound in the head with no external source.
While there's no cure for chronic tinnitus, it often becomes less noticeable and more manageable over time. Sound waves travel through the ear canal to the middle and inner ear, where hair cells in part of the cochlea help transform sound waves into electrical signals that then travel to the brain's auditory cortex via the auditory nerve.
Most people who seek medical help for tinnitus experience it as subjective, constant sound, and most have some degree of hearing loss. Tinnitus can arise anywhere along the auditory pathway, from the outer ear through the middle and inner ear to the brain's auditory cortex, where it's thought to be encoded (in a sense, imprinted).
Most tinnitus is "sensorineural," meaning that it's due to hearing loss at the cochlea or cochlear nerve level.
Tinnitus that's continuous, steady, and high-pitched (the most common type) generally indicates a problem in the auditory system and requires hearing tests conducted by an audiologist. Your general health can affect the severity and impact of tinnitus, so this is also a good time to take stock of your diet, physical activity, sleep, and stress level — and take steps to improve them.
If you're often exposed to loud noises at work or at home, it's important to reduce the risk of hearing loss (or further hearing loss) by using protectors such as earplugs or earmuff-like or custom-fitted devices. In addition to treating associated problems (such as depression or insomnia), there are several strategies that can help make tinnitus less bothersome. There is no FDA-approved drug treatment for tinnitus, and controlled trials have not found any drug, supplement, or herb to be any more effective than a placebo. The most effective approaches are behavioral strategies and sound-generating devices, often used in combination. Not all insurance companies cover tinnitus treatments in the same way, so be sure to check your coverage. You may not be aware of it but you probably know somebody who suffers with the constant ringing in their ears otherwise known as tinnitus. This would often be the case for the 3% of tinnitus sufferers who have the rare form of tinnitus known as pulsatile tinnitus. This is because pulsatile tinnitus occurs when either the blood vessels inside the neck or head of the sufferer narrow constricting the flow of blood or if there is an increase in blood flow. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called by the older names benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), is a neurological disorder that is characterized by an increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) in the absence of a tumor or other diseases. Pulsatile tinnitus can also be caused by a glomus tumour which is a benign vascular tumour most usually located in the ear just below the artery and typically is a result of cholesterol buildup on the artery wall.
This inflammation causes increased blood flow to the tissue present in the ear and the blood flow causes the pulsing noises or tinnitus. This is very similar to the standard congestion one gets from a cold or allergies, though there are subtle differences. Obviously, the cures available to the pulsatile tinnitus sufferer will very much depend on the cause of the problem. With idiopathic intra-cranial hypertension a number of treatments are available and the one used will depend on the exact cause of the problem. Simply put you name and main email address in the box below and click the orange 'Get Instant Access' button then we'll send you the Free eBook and extra info within a few minutes!
A ringing, swishing, or other noise in the ears or head when no external sound is present is called tinnitus.


Most people are unaware of the normal noises the body makes as our ambient environment masks them. To diagnose tinnitus, a doctor will do a physical examination and ask you about your history, including whether the tinnitus is constant, intermittent, or pulsating (like the heartbeat, called pulsatile tinnitus), or if it is associated with hearing loss or loss of balance (vertigo or vestibular balance disorders). Treatment for tinnitus depends on the underlying cause and may include medications in addition to home remedies.
Successful behavioral and cognitive therapies include retraining therapy, masking, and behavioral therapy. Many recreational events such as concerts, sports, or hunting may come with loud noise that can bother the ears. For many, it's a ringing sound, while for others, it's whistling, buzzing, chirping, hissing, humming, roaring, or even shrieking. You can help ease the symptoms by educating yourself about the condition — for example, understanding that it's not dangerous.
When hair cells are damaged — by loud noise or ototoxic drugs, for example — the circuits in the brain don't receive the signals they're expecting. Things that cause hearing loss (and tinnitus) include loud noise, medications that damage the nerves in the ear (ototoxic drugs), impacted earwax, middle ear problems (such as infections and vascular tumors), and aging. One of the most common causes of tinnitus is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (see "Auditory pathways and tinnitus"). She or he will take a medical history, give you a physical examination, and do a series of tests to try to find the source of the problem. Pulsatile tinnitus calls for a thorough evaluation by an otolaryngologist (commonly called an ear, nose, and throat specialist, or ENT) or neurotologist, especially if the noise is frequent or constant.
You may also be able to reduce the impact of tinnitus by treating depression, anxiety, insomnia, and pain with medications or psychotherapy. No single approach works for everyone, and you may need to try various combinations of techniques before you find what works for you. CBT uses techniques such as cognitive restructuring and relaxation to change the way patients think about and respond to tinnitus. Masking devices, worn like hearing aids, generate low-level white noise (a high-pitched hiss, for example) that can reduce the perception of tinnitus and sometimes also produce residual inhibition — less noticeable tinnitus for a short time after the masker is turned off. Other treatments that have been studied for tinnitus include transcutaneous electrical stimulation of parts of the inner ear by way of electrodes placed on the skin or acupuncture needles, and stimulation of the brain using a powerful magnetic field (a technique called repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, or rTMS).
In these cases the noises they hear in their ears can be heard as a rhythmic pulsing usually in time with the heartbeat. Because of this, the blood is caused to flow in a more turbulent manner than usual and so can be heard within the ear. As was mentioned earlier this type of tinnitus could be as a result of increased blood flow which might be the cause of the increased blood pressure. The main symptoms are headache, nausea and vomiting as well as pulsatile tinnitus (buzzing in the ears), double vision and other visual symptoms.
As mentioned earlier, if the problem is due to high blood pressure then reducing it should relieve the tinnitus. Medications may be prescribed in some cases, often to treat the psychological effects of anxiety or depression that may accompany the tinnitus. Pushing a swab into the ear can cause the wax in the ear canal to become impacted against the eardrum, causing tinnitus. If others can hear your music, or you are unable to hear the noise around you, the volume is too high.
It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Some medications (especially aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs taken in high doses) can cause tinnitus that goes away when the drug is discontinued.
In about 10% of cases, the condition interferes with everyday life so much that medical help and psychotherapy are needed. This stimulates abnormal activity in the neurons, which results in the illusion of sound, or tinnitus. Tinnitus can also be a symptom of Mnire's disease, a disorder of the balance mechanism in the inner ear. She or he will also ask you to describe the noise you're hearing (including its pitch and sound quality, and whether it's constant or periodic, steady or pulsatile) and the times and places in which you hear it. The aim is to habituate the auditory system to the tinnitus signals, making them less noticeable or less bothersome.
Today, the term TRT is being used to describe modified versions of this therapy, and the variations make accurate assessment of its effectiveness difficult. A specialized device isn't always necessary for masking; often, playing music or having a radio, fan, or white-noise machine on in the background is enough. But in some cases tinnitus can be a symptom of an underlying problem such as say, high blood pressure.


Sometimes the noises are heard as a thumping or a whooshing sound but in most of these cases the noises are due to a disturbance of the blood flow through the individual’s ear.
Pulsatile tinnitus is a different form of continuous tinnitus which typically is caused by damage to the cochlear of the inner ear or by damage to the nerves within the ear itself. As most people know, an increase in blood pressure is something that you should see your doctor about.
If untreated, it may lead associated swelling of the optic disc in the eye, which can progress to vision loss.
In the case of middle ear infection, treatment with antibiotics or medicated drops to eradicate infection will in most cases deal with the tinnitus as well. Anything that blocks the background noise of everyday life such as earwax, earplugs, or a foreign body in the ear can make people more aware of the natural sounds our body makes. Other tests include an auditory brain stem response (ABR), a computerized test of the hearing nerves and brain pathways, computer tomography scan (CT scan), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan) to rule out a type of rare tumor.
In these cases selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants such as sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), or a benzodiazepine such as alprazolam (Xanax) may be prescribed.
Do not use tissue or cotton in the ears as these not only do not offer adequate protection against certain loud or high-pitched noises, they may become lodged in the ear canal. Nicotine in tobacco products may reduce blood flow to the structures of the ear, leading to tinnitus.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Many people can hear their heartbeat — a phenomenon called pulsatile tinnitus — especially as they grow older, because blood flow tends to be more turbulent in arteries whose walls have stiffened with age. If the auditory pathways or circuits in the brain don't receive the signals they're expecting from the cochlea, the brain in effect "turns up the gain" on those pathways in an effort to detect the signal — in much the same way that you turn up the volume on a car radio when you're trying to find a station's signal.
Your clinician will review your medical history, your current and past exposure to noise, and any medications or supplements you're taking. The main components of TRT are individual counseling (to explain the auditory system, how tinnitus develops, and how TRT can help) and sound therapy. Although there's not enough evidence from randomized trials to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of masking, hearing experts often recommend a trial of simple masking strategies (such as setting a radio at low volume between stations) before they turn to more expensive options.
Electrodes attached to the skin feed information about physiological processes such as pulse, skin temperature, and muscle tension into a computer, which displays the output on a monitor.
In two small trials, rTMS compared with a sham procedure helped improve the perception of tinnitus in a few patients.
Happily however, by lowering the blood pressure through lifestyle and dietary changes or at worst medication — then the sufferer may well find that their tinnitus is also resolved.
In the past the supplement niacin was recommended or the drug gabapentin (Neurontin, Gabarone) was prescribed but both have been shown to have no effect on reliving tinnitus. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the MedicineNet Site. As many as 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from this condition; it's especially common in people over age 55 and strongly associated with hearing loss. Pulsatile tinnitus may be more noticeable at night, when you're lying in bed, because more blood is reaching your head, and there are fewer external sounds to mask the tinnitus.
The resulting electrical noise takes the form of tinnitus — a sound that is high-pitched if hearing loss is in the high-frequency range and low-pitched if it's in the low-frequency range. Tinnitus can be a side effect of many medications, especially when taken at higher doses (see "Some drugs that can cause or worsen tinnitus"). A 2010 review of six studies by the Cochrane Collaboration (an international group of health authorities who evaluate randomized trials) found that after CBT, the sound was no less loud, but it was significantly less bothersome, and patients' quality of life improved. A device is inserted in the ear to generate low-level noise and environmental sounds that match the pitch, volume, and quality of the patient's tinnitus. In a Cochrane review of the one randomized trial that followed Jastreboff's protocol and met the organization's standards, TRT was much more effective in reducing tinnitus severity and disability than a technique called masking (see below). Patients learn how to alter these processes and reduce the body's stress response by changing their thoughts and feelings. In addition, patulous Eustachian tube generally feels dry with no clogged feeling or sinus pressure. Many people worry that tinnitus is a sign that they are going deaf or have another serious medical problem, but it rarely is.
This kind of tinnitus resembles phantom limb pain in an amputee — the brain is producing abnormal nerve signals to compensate for missing input.




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