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13.05.2014

What causes hearing loss and ringing in the ears, recurrent depressive disorder icd 10 - For Begninners

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There are many factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing tinnitus. Another hypothesis is that tinnitus develops because of changes in how the brain processes sound in response to altered input from the cochlea.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) occurs when loud noise damages the working of the inner ear and causes hearing loss. Roughly 20% of adults in the US, about 48 million people, report some degree of hearing loss.
According to the American Tinnitus Association, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) and tinnitus is currently the number one service connected disability of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Recreational activities that can put someone at risk for NIHL include target shooting and hunting, snowmobile riding, listening to MP3 players at high volume through earbuds or headphones, playing in a band and attending loud concerts.
Hearing depends on a series of events that change sound waves in the air into electrical signals. When hair cells are damaged they produce excess glutamate, which floods the neurons in the auditory nerve. If a neuron in the auditory cortex is not getting input from the hearing nerve, it might well pick up electrical activity in an adjacent region and respond to that. If you are looking to find out the causes of ringing in the ears then this presentation will highlight 5 main causes. It has been determined that exposure to noise is the most common cause of preventable hearing loss experience in the community.
For individuals not experienced with hearing loss it can be very difficult to understand the frustration and difficulties that arise from such an every-day process that we take for granted. A noise injury is mostly acquired gradually as the result of exposure to loud noises over an extended period of time. Repeated or prolonged exposure to loud sounds increases the risk of hearing damage, and the effects are cumulative. Sounds below 75 decibels are unlikely to cause hearing damage, regardless of the duration of exposure. Hearing slowly gets damaged in an almost imperceptible way and it can take many years of exposure for the effected individual to actually take notice.
The loss of hearing through exposure to excessive noise in the workplace is a well documented occupational health and safety (OHS) issue.
The main point is that you do not need to be any sort of a noise expert to know if something is noisy. Steps have been taken through OHS legislation and regulations to limit the amount of noise to which workers are exposed in order to minimise the health risks.
Provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as supplying ear plugs, ear muffs accompanied by an effective education and training programme. But note that the use of PPE is acceptable only as an interim measure until noise levels can be reduced or if there is no alternate practicable solution.


High levels of noise exposure have traditionally been discussed in terms of workplace noise exposure, with the hearing loss often being referred to as 'industrial' or 'occupational' deafness. High levels of leisure noise can come from more traditional activities such as motor bike riding, shooting, use of power tools, etc, or from more contemporary sources such as pub bands, concerts and personal stereo players.
In principle the same preventative action should be adopted even though this may at first seem more difficult when operating in a different social situation when compared to the workplace.
If you experience tinnitus or ringing in your ears after a particular heavy concert then be warned, your ears are trying to tell you something. It can be the result of a one-time exposure to an intense impulse sound, such as an explosion, or by continuous exposure to loud sounds over an extended period of time. The total number of vets awarded disability compensation at the end of 2009 surpassed 760,000. Harmful noises at home may come from lawnmowers, leaf blowers and shop or woodworking tools. The auditory nerve then carries the signals to the brain for processing and interpretation.
Sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate and transmit the vibrations to three tiny bones in the middle ear. The bones in the middle ear amplify and transmit the vibrations from the air to fluid vibrations in the cochlea of the inner ear, which is shaped like a snail and filled with fluid. The cochlea transforms the vibrational sound into electrical signals it sends to the brain. As sound vibrations reach the hair cells, only those that respond to the specific frequency of the sound are activated. As fluid is churned in the cochlea from vibration coming from the middle ear bones, the fluid rushes past these hairs and causes them to bend.
When the cells are presented with an overstimulation of their frequency their supportive structure becomes swollen and can rupture, destroying the hair cell. Since the neuron is responsible for a specific sound, even though it is responding to a different input, its output sounds like a ringing sound at the pitch that neuron represents.
Exacerbation of noise-induced hearing loss in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLAST. In order to prevent hearing loss, people need to be aware of things that can damage their hearing, and learn ways of ensuring their hearing health.
When preventable hearing loss is further coupled to loss due to the ageing process (presbycusis) it is easily understood why hearing loss is more common in the older age groups.
The loudness of a sound is measured in decibels which is a non-linear scale used for scientific purposes. This noise exposure is a function of loudness and time so if you wish to reduce your exposure you must firstly reduce the volume or loudness and then the time.
Noise injury is painless and bloodless and does not rate high on a scale of physical injury such as a broken arm or leg but have no doubt it is a real injury nevertheless.


Many workplaces have the potential for a degree of noise exposure, however, some workplaces are identified as posing a particularly high risk for hearing. If the noise level is such that you need to raise your voice to carry on a normal conversation then chances are that it is too noisy.
Just as with workplace noise, if you have trouble conversing over the noise level then it is potentially too loud and exposure must be reduced. In order to better understand this, it is necessary to first understand the basics of how hearing operates and then review how noise damages hearing and its effects on the ears and brain.
There are two types of hair cells, Outer Hair Cells (OHC), which amplify the vibrations, and Inner Hair Cells (IHC), which transform the vibrations into electrical nerve impulses. The bending of these hairs opens a sort of trap door underneath them, allowing the potassium-rich fluid they live in to reach a sodium-filled fluid underneath, and potassium mixed with sodium makes electricity. This excess glutamate overexcites the neurons and causes them to fire continuously until they become chemically depleted and eventually die. Just like the hair cells in the cochlea, the auditory cortex is organized according to sound frequency, meaning every neuron is responsible for a different pitch. So, even though there is no real sound being generated at that frequency, it sounds as if there is and that, by definition, is tinnitus.
For the purposes of looking after your hearing the most important thing to note is that if you need to use a raised voice to communicate or carry on a normal conversation between two people at arms length then the noise level is potentially hazardous and exposure over a significant time could bring problems.
Noise exposure is cumulative over your life-time, meaning that every over exposure adds up – just like too much UV-radiation or exposure to the sun. These regulations set mandated acceptable levels, and the nature of employers' and employees' responsibilities for reducing any exposure above these limits.
For this reason controls at the top of the hierarchy are preferable as they remove the hazard and do not rely on changing workplace behaviour for safe working conditions. But you need to look after your hearing so some action must be taken: remove the noise, reduce the volume or remove yourself.
Calcium ions then enter the cell and trigger the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate. If enough hair cells in this region of the cochlea die, the frequencies represented by the cells may not be relayed to the brain.
When hearing loss occurs, certain brain neurons lack input in the regions where the hearing loss is most severe.
Although the lower level controls have the potential to be effective, they are less reliable, relying on individual workers to take steps to protect themselves.



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