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25.09.2014

What are the symptoms of adhd in young adults, how to overcome depression and anxiety naturally - Review

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In children, the symptoms must be more frequent or severe than in other children of the same age.
Increasingly, researchers are studying ADHD in the context of executive functions—the brain functions that activate, organize, integrate, and manage other functions. In instances where heredity does not seem to be a factor, difficulties during pregnancy, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, premature delivery, significantly low birth weight, excessively high body lead levels, and postnatal injury to the prefrontal regions of the brain have all been found to contribute to the risk for ADHD to varying degrees. The instability of diagnostic categories doesn’t make the lived experience of these ailments any less real.
Somewhere between Neurasthenia and ADHD, society shifted in its understanding of abnormal behaviors.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders of childhood and often continues through adolescence and adulthood.
Many people assume that student-athletes are emotionally healthy in the same ways that they are assumed to be physically healthy.
At Ferris State University, student-athletes are primarily referred for an ADHD assessment by a certified athletic trainer.
After the referral has been made for the ADHD assessment, the student-athlete is evaluated at the Ferris State Health Center to assess current symptoms. The ADHD assessment protocol employed at the Ferris State Counseling Center follows a multi-method approach, which includes assessment procedures such as interviews, rating scales, psychological tests and a review of past academic records. Due to the complexity of a comprehensive ADHD assessment, they should be completed by a professional—namely, a psychologist, psychiatrist or medical doctor with experience in this area. ADHD treatment is often multi-disciplinary in nature, and may include any combination of cognitive-behavioral strategies, goal-oriented strategies, nutritional guidance, psychotherapy and medication management. Stimulant medications are NCAA banned substances, and their use requires the institution to maintain documentation on file and submit a medical exception request, using the NCAA medical exception ADHD reporting form, in the event of a positive drug test. Current diagnostic criteria indicate that the disorder is marked by behaviors that are long-lasting and evident for at least six months, with onset before age seven. In adults, the symptoms must be present since childhood and affect the person’s ability to function in daily life.
Impairment of these executive functions is considered highly interrelated to symptoms associated with ADHD. Although precise causes have not yet been identified, there is little question that heredity makes the largest contribution to the expression of the disorder in the population. The following post was written by a student in Carolyn Herbst Lewis’ course on the history of medicine. Characterized by a lack of nerve energy, Neurasthenia’s symptoms vary wildly from depression to hyperactivity to indigestion. Yet, many of these same symptoms were ascribed to an entirely different disease in the previous century. Try telling a depressed person that their disease isn’t real because it wasn’t a diagnostic category until 1980—actually, please don’t try.


Neurasthenia over-emphasized external causes for abnormality, while ADHD emphasizes internal causes to explain deviant behavior. The blame shifted from the society to the individual, or more specifically, from society to an isolated brain dysfunction—a dysfunction that can only be treated with medication. In the past, some individuals and groups believed that young adults would simply “outgrow” ADHD. However, just as student-athletes may suffer with physical illnesses and injuries, they are also vulnerable to mental health disorders, including ADHD.
ADHD symptoms are often noticed by student-athletes in situations such as listening to a lecture in class, completing homework assignments, talking with friends or listening to a coach’s instructions. Athletic trainers may refer a student whom they suspect has ADHD because of difficulties in the classroom, on the field or both.
The Health Center physicians utilize an ADHD screening assessment to determine the presence and severity of symptoms. A multi-method approach to the assessment of ADHD is important because there is no single procedure that addresses all of the criteria for ADHD. The broad-band rating scales assess a wide range of behaviors that typically include psychological symptoms beyond those specific to ADHD such as depression and anxiety, which are often associated with ADHD symptoms.
The continuous performance test is one of the most common diagnostic tests used in the assessment of ADHD. It is the experience of this author (as the psychologist providing the assessment), that having a close working relationship with the athletic trainers and physicians on campus facilitates an effective and efficient protocol in managing student-athletes with suspected ADHD.
Stimulant medications are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of ADHD (commonly prescribed ADHD stimulant medications are listed in Table 3). The documentation must include a written report of the evaluation conducted to support the diagnosis of ADHD, and medical treatment notes from the prescribing physician. Because everyone shows signs of these behaviors at one time or another, the guidelines for determining whether a person has ADHD are very specific. For both children and adults, these symptoms must create significant difficulty in at least two areas of life, such as home, social settings, school, or work. Lewis’ students spent the semester writing a longer research paper, and then had the added challenge of sharing the contents of that paper with a broader audience through a blog post. Since anything abnormal could be attributed to Neurasthenia, the disease became an umbrella term.
The fact that physicians in different eras have pathologized this set of symptoms speaks to the arbitrariness of the diagnosis and the significance of the broader social context.
And they must have been severe enough to interfere with the patient’s quality of life (See Table 1). Athletic trainers also refer students that have been previously diagnosed and are currently taking a stimulant medication, but lack proper documentation of an ADHD diagnosis.
The physicians then use the data from this assessment to determine whether or not a student should be evaluated further. The new diagnostic criteria indicate that there must be evidence of ADHD symptoms prior to age 12.


Sometimes, anti-depressant and other medications are used in ADHD treatment, and these drugs are not prohibited. You may also contact us by phone (800-233-4050) or use our Online Form (select "Questions about ADHD") and a health information specialist will provide a personalized response. The Nursing Clio editors selected two to share, but you can read the rest of Lewis’ students’ posts here. The former, Neurasthenia, was popularized in the nineteenth century, diagnosed primarily in adults but often in children. Neurasthenia was considered the American Disease, conceived of as a side effect of the rapidly industrializing world and schedule-oriented society.
Reducing complicated behavior patterns to neurological abnormalities may prevent us from seeing how these “problems” fit into the broader experience of the individual. For the student-athlete this means that ADHD symptoms are usually present on a daily or weekly basis both within the academic setting and in the athletic, social, job or home setting.
In this case, the health center physician will refer the student-athlete to the counseling center for a comprehensive assessment.
The Ferris State Counseling Center protocol utilizes a semi-structured assessment during the first session, which is adapted from the standard intake interview. For example, the student-athlete may be asked to press the space bar every time the letter A appears on the monitor.
Most report cards assess classroom behavior and study habits, which typically include areas closely related to ADHD symptoms.
While proponents of Neurasthenia looked to the outside world to explain physical and emotional abnormality, ADHD does the opposite.
Often, a student-athletes is diagnosed by a family doctor or primary care physician without a comprehensive assessment, and that physician will make a diagnosis of ADHD based upon the results of just one rating scale assessment or a short diagnostic-focused conversation with the patient.
Following the completion of this assessment, which typically spans the course of four to five sessions, the report is released (with the client’s permission) to the health center and the athletics department. The protocol employs a structured interview at the second session that more closely examines each symptom of ADHD. These continuous performance tests detect brief lapses of attention through omission errors (lack of attention) and commission errors (impulsive response).
For example, “listens attentively” and “follows directions” are common assessment areas specific to study habits. If a child with ADHD were to travel backwards in time seeking psychiatric help, my money is on a Neurasthenia diagnosis.
This structured interview is geared specifically to the adult population and assesses symptoms that were present during childhood and adulthood.



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