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03.08.2014

Tinnitus radio frequency, is there any treatment for ringing in the ears - PDF Review

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Tinnitus (pronounced tih-NITE-us or TIN-ih-tus) is sound in the head with no external source. Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise.
While there's no cure for chronic tinnitus, it often becomes less noticeable and more manageable over time. Most people who seek medical help for tinnitus experience it as subjective, constant sound, and most have some degree of hearing loss.
Tinnitus can arise anywhere along the auditory pathway, from the outer ear through the middle and inner ear to the brain's auditory cortex, where it's thought to be encoded (in a sense, imprinted). Most tinnitus is "sensorineural," meaning that it's due to hearing loss at the cochlea or cochlear nerve level. Musculoskeletal factors — jaw clenching, tooth grinding, prior injury, or muscle tension in the neck — sometimes make tinnitus more noticeable, so your clinician may ask you to tighten muscles or move the jaw or neck in certain ways to see if the sound changes.
Tinnitus that's continuous, steady, and high-pitched (the most common type) generally indicates a problem in the auditory system and requires hearing tests conducted by an audiologist. Your general health can affect the severity and impact of tinnitus, so this is also a good time to take stock of your diet, physical activity, sleep, and stress level — and take steps to improve them. In addition to treating associated problems (such as depression or insomnia), there are several strategies that can help make tinnitus less bothersome. There is no FDA-approved drug treatment for tinnitus, and controlled trials have not found any drug, supplement, or herb to be any more effective than a placebo. Not all insurance companies cover tinnitus treatments in the same way, so be sure to check your coverage. The most common types of tinnitus are ringing or hissing ringing and roaring (low-pitched hissing).
Tinnitus is usually static noise in the auditory system that is associated with loss of sound from the external environment. People who take large amounts of aspirin may experience tinnitus which goes away if they stop the aspirin. Pulsatile tinnitus (tinnitus that beats with your pulse) can be caused by aneurysms, increased pressure in the head (hydrocephalus), and hardening of the arteries. Because tinnitus is a symptom rather than a disease, it is important to evaluate the underlying cause. In persons with pulsatile tinnitus, additional tests may be proposed to study the blood vessels and to check the pressure inside the head.
Based on these tests, tinnitus can be separated into categories of cochlear, retrocochlear, central, and tinnitus of unknown cause. If a specific cause for tinnitus is determined, it is possible that treating the cause will eliminate the noise. In most cases of tinnitus, the sound is an abnormal auditory sense perception of a sound that is really neither in the body nor coming from the outside.
Similarly, we have found that tinnitus can be diminished by not listening to it; ignoring the abnormal perception of sound until it is no longer bothersome.
We do know that individuals who focus on the tinnitus and listen to it constantly seem to aggravate the degree to which it is bothersome and seem to enhance the abnormal perception of the sound.
We recommend that persons with tinnitus limit salt (no added salt), and refrain from drinking caffeinated beverages, other stimulants (like tea), and chocolate. Because tinnitus has been linked to changes in neural activity within the brain, stimulation of the nerves within the cortex has been studied as a treatment option. Anxiety or depression that often accompanies tinnitus may be as big a problem as the tinnitus itself. Tinnitus is the perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound. Tinnitus may be an accompaniment of sensorineural hearing loss or congenital hearing loss, or it may be observed as a side effect of certain medications. As tinnitus is usually a subjective phenomenon, it is difficult to measure using objective tests, such as by comparison with noise of known frequency and intensity, as in an audiometric test. As with all diagnostics, other potential sources of the sounds normally associated with tinnitus should be ruled out. Things that cause hearing loss (and tinnitus) include loud noise, medications that damage the nerves in the ear (ototoxic drugs), impacted earwax, middle ear problems (such as infections and vascular tumors), and aging. One of the most common causes of tinnitus is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (see "Auditory pathways and tinnitus"). Pulsatile tinnitus calls for a thorough evaluation by an otolaryngologist (commonly called an ear, nose, and throat specialist, or ENT) or neurotologist, especially if the noise is frequent or constant. You may also be able to reduce the impact of tinnitus by treating depression, anxiety, insomnia, and pain with medications or psychotherapy. CBT uses techniques such as cognitive restructuring and relaxation to change the way patients think about and respond to tinnitus.


Masking devices, worn like hearing aids, generate low-level white noise (a high-pitched hiss, for example) that can reduce the perception of tinnitus and sometimes also produce residual inhibition — less noticeable tinnitus for a short time after the masker is turned off. Other treatments that have been studied for tinnitus include transcutaneous electrical stimulation of parts of the inner ear by way of electrodes placed on the skin or acupuncture needles, and stimulation of the brain using a powerful magnetic field (a technique called repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, or rTMS).
Tinnitus is common — nearly 36 million Americans have tinnitus and more than half of the normal population has intermittent tinnitus. Therefore, tinnitus is common and in most, but not all, cases it is associated with some degree of hearing loss. Anything that increases blood flow or turbulence such as hyperthyroidism, low blood viscosity (for example, anemia), or tortuous blood vessels may cause pulsatile tinnitus. Persons who experience tinnitus should be seen by a physician expert in ear disease, typically an otolaryngologist. The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of the jaw should also be checked, since about 28% of persons with TMJ syndrome experience tinnitus. For many people with tinnitus, the sound is usually masked, or covered up, when there is a usual level of noise in the environment. Therefore, it is very important to understand that the individual is very much in control of the degree to which the tinnitus is distracting or annoying.
You should certainly consider surgery if your tinnitus is due to a tumor and also if it is due to a venous source (usually pulsatile in this situation).
If you have tinnitus associated with a hearing loss, a hearing aid is the first thing to try. Listening to the inter-station static on the FM radio, tapes of ocean surf, and the like may be helpful.
At the American Hearing Research Foundation (AHRF), we have funded basic research on tinnitus in the past, and are interested in funding sound research on tinnitus in the future. This has led to the suggestion that one cause of tinnitus might be a homeostatic response of central dorsal cochlear nucleus auditory neurons that makes them hyperactive in compensation to auditory input loss. Persistent tinnitus may cause irritability, fatigue, and on occasions, clinical depression and musical hallucinations. Some medications (especially aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs taken in high doses) can cause tinnitus that goes away when the drug is discontinued. This stimulates abnormal activity in the neurons, which results in the illusion of sound, or tinnitus.
Tinnitus can also be a symptom of Mnire's disease, a disorder of the balance mechanism in the inner ear. If you have age-related hearing loss, a hearing aid can often make tinnitus less noticeable by amplifying outside sounds. The aim is to habituate the auditory system to the tinnitus signals, making them less noticeable or less bothersome. A specialized device isn't always necessary for masking; often, playing music or having a radio, fan, or white-noise machine on in the background is enough. The most common causes of tinnitus are damage to the high frequency hearing by exposure to loud noise or elevated levels of common drugs that can be toxic to the inner ear in high doses. We know of people who have focused on and listened to tinnitus until it dominated their lives. For venous tinnitus, possibilities include jugular vein ligation, occlusion of the sigmoid sinus, or closure of a dural fistula. Be sure that you try the hearing aid before buying one, as tinnitus is not always helped by an aid. Direct intracranial electrical stimulation of the cortex also has positive effects on tinnitus (De Ridder et al 2007a, Seidman et al 2008). A recent systematic review of the literature concluded that CBT was an effective treatment of tinnitus distress, although the authors cautioned that larger studies should be completed (Hesser et al 2011). Learn more about donating to American Hearing Research Foundation (AHRF) to diagnose tinnitus. Theta, alpha and beta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation: brain modulation in tinnitus. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and extradural electrodes implanted on secondary auditory cortex for tinnitus suppression. Methodological considerations in treatment evaluations of tinnitus distress: a call for guidelines.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy for tinnitus distress. Effect of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of tinnitus: comparison of different stimulus frequencies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment of chronic tinnitus: clinical effects. Sulpiride and melatonin decrease tinnitus perception modulating the auditolimbic dopaminergic pathway.


Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic tinnitus: a randomised, crossover, double blind, placebo controlled study. Drug treatments for subjective tinnitus: serendipitous discovery versus rational drug design. Heller and Bergman (1953) conducted a study of 100 tinnitus-free university students placed in an anechoic chamber and found 93% reported hearing a buzzing, pulsing or whistling sound. A common and often misdiagnosed condition that mimics tinnitus is Radio Frequency (RF) hearing, in which subjects have been tested and found to hear high-pitched transmission frequencies that sound similar to tinnitus.
Many people can hear their heartbeat — a phenomenon called pulsatile tinnitus — especially as they grow older, because blood flow tends to be more turbulent in arteries whose walls have stiffened with age. If the auditory pathways or circuits in the brain don't receive the signals they're expecting from the cochlea, the brain in effect "turns up the gain" on those pathways in an effort to detect the signal — in much the same way that you turn up the volume on a car radio when you're trying to find a station's signal.
The main components of TRT are individual counseling (to explain the auditory system, how tinnitus develops, and how TRT can help) and sound therapy. Individual studies have reported improvements in as many as 80% of patients with high-pitched tinnitus. Although there's not enough evidence from randomized trials to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of masking, hearing experts often recommend a trial of simple masking strategies (such as setting a radio at low volume between stations) before they turn to more expensive options. In two small trials, rTMS compared with a sham procedure helped improve the perception of tinnitus in a few patients. For example, after you have been to a loud rock concert you may experience tinnitus for a while in association with dulling of hearing. Tinnitus may be heard when there is a temporary conductive hearing loss due to ear infection or due to blockage of the ear with wax, or may be associated with any other cause of conductive hearing loss. If you can ignore tinnitus rather than obsess about it, this may be the best way to handle it. Tinnitus can be intermittent, or it can be continuous, in which case it can be the cause of great distress. Pulsatile tinnitus may be more noticeable at night, when you're lying in bed, because more blood is reaching your head, and there are fewer external sounds to mask the tinnitus.
The resulting electrical noise takes the form of tinnitus — a sound that is high-pitched if hearing loss is in the high-frequency range and low-pitched if it's in the low-frequency range. Tinnitus can be a side effect of many medications, especially when taken at higher doses (see "Some drugs that can cause or worsen tinnitus").
A device is inserted in the ear to generate low-level noise and environmental sounds that match the pitch, volume, and quality of the patient's tinnitus.
In a Cochrane review of the one randomized trial that followed Jastreboff's protocol and met the organization's standards, TRT was much more effective in reducing tinnitus severity and disability than a technique called masking (see below). If the tinnitus goes away and hearing seems to come back, this is called a temporary threshold shift.
Tinnitus is typically associated with the fluctuation in hearing that occurs with Meniere’s disease.
Masking of the sound by providing noise from the outside was a popular area of focus in the treatment of tinnitus for several years, but has not proven long-term to be the solution to cure that was hoped. Occasionally persons with Meniere’s disease have relief or reduction of tinnitus from transtympanic gentamicin. Many people worry that tinnitus is a sign that they are going deaf or have another serious medical problem, but it rarely is. If you notice any new pulsatile tinnitus, you should consult a clinician, because in rare cases it is a sign of a tumor or blood vessel damage. This kind of tinnitus resembles phantom limb pain in an amputee — the brain is producing abnormal nerve signals to compensate for missing input. An enlarged jugular bulb on the involved side is common in persons with venous type pulsatile tinnitus.
Studies have shown that there is not a correlation between the loudness or pitch of the tinnitus and the degree to which it bothers the individual. Microvascular compression syndrome, in theory, may cause tinnitus, but we have had very little success when the few patients we have seen with this syndrome have undergone surgery. The interested reader is referred to Meng (2011) for a recent meta-analysis of TENS as a treatment for tinnitus. Controlling the perception by ignoring it is such a simple and effective approach for most individuals that it is the first line of coping with tinnitus for the vast majority of people.
Or, tinnitus which pulsates in time with your blood pulse may be due to a vascular problem that can be corrected.
Steady, constant tinnitus is usually due to some cause of hearing loss, but people with no measurable hearing loss may hear tinnitus if they are in a totally quiet environment in which little sound is coming into their auditory system from the outside.



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Comments to “Tinnitus radio frequency”

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  4. HACEKOMOE:
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