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18.03.2015

Tinnitus causes depression, ringing in ears ear infection - For Begninners

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Tinnitus has no cure or treatment medications available, but scientists are moving closer to understanding the condition's cognitive roots. Tinnitus is most basically classified as a constant ringing of the ears; however, the condition plays host to a wide range of sounds, all of which may arise for different reasons. Josef Rauschecker, a professor of neuroscience at the Georgetown University Medical Center and tinnitus expert, believes science must move toward understanding why tinnitus doesn’t always lead to hearing loss — only in about 30 percent of patients, he says. In other words, if Rauschecker can conduct a study of SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) antidepressants and successfully show that tinnitus’ volume gets turned down, the link to depression will be nearly cemented.
Definition: Tinnitus could be defined as perception of noise in the absence of acoustic stimuli. Prevalance: Studies have shown that nearly 20% of adults experience tinnitus in one form or the other. Hearing loss: Studies conducted in Canada showed people with deafness had increased incidence of tinnitus. Tinnitus in children: Increased incidence of otitis media in pediatric age group plays an important role in high prevalance of tinnitus in children.
Classification of tinnitus: One simplistic classification of tinnitus could be Subjective and Objective tinnitus. Pulsatile tinnitus: May be classified into vascular and non vascular types according to its etiology. Non vascular types of pulsatile tinnitus include palatal myoclonus, tensor tympani myoclonus, and stapedial myoclonus. Nodar's classification: This classification was based on the importance of 6 factors related to tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus can be compared to phantom sensations which occur after amputation of limb. Auditory feed back system and its role in tinnitus generation: The optimal operation of auditory system is dependent on very sensitive and complex feed back mechanisms involving the afferent (ascending), efferent (descending) pathways. Nervous system as the site of tinnitus: Most forms of severe tinnitus have been shown to be caused by abnormal functioning of the nervous system.
Vascular contact with the intracranial portion of auditory nerve is regularly associated with tinnitus. A good history is a must for accurate diagnosis of the underlying pathology leading on to tinnitus. Etiology of objective tinnitus include: intracranial vascular anamolies, atherosclerosis of aorta, pseudotumor cerebri, chemodectomas involving the middle ear.


Pitch estimation: Pitch estimation of tinnitus helps in the probable etiology for tinnitus. Masking: Refers to the reduction of audibility of tinnitus when the patient is exposed to another sound. Robert De Mong, a tinnitus sufferer for six years, began in the first group but eventually experienced a violent shove into the second. But it wasn’t to a physician, or an ear doctor (called an “otologist”), or even a tinnitus specialist.
But interestingly, the findings don’t automatically paint depression as a result of the tinnitus; the conventional wisdom holds that both are co-dependent on one another. It involves mindfulness and what clinical psychologist Jennifer Gans calls “moving into” one’s tinnitus — embracing it like an icy road that causes you to skid.
Factors affecting the prevalance of tinnitus include: age, gender, race, economic status, hearing loss and noise exposure.
Alteration in the stereocilia that are attached to the outer hair cells could be the exact cause. This disorder includes a triad of symptoms which include fluctuating hearing loss, roaring tinnitus and vertigo. Noise and ototoxic drugs cause damage to hair cells of cochlea depriving auditory input to the brain. Infact tinnitus could be the first symptom of a vestibular schwannoma, it becomes worse after surgical removal of schwannoma. Severity of tinnitus should be assessed (ie whether present throughout the day - severe tinnitus, present only in the absence of ambient noise - night times - mild tinnitus). High pitched tinnitus is common in patients with noise induced hearing loss, and low pitched tinnitus is commonly seen in Menier's disease.
The stiffness of the stereocilia is altered causing its decoupling from the tectorial membrane. This indicates that tinnitus could be generated by the brain in response to lack of normal stimuli from the auditory system. This type of tinnitus occur due to irritation to the nerve by the offending vessel (kindling phenomenon). Subjective tinnitus is usually high pitched and ringing in nature and can only be perceived by the patient. In Meniere's disease it is low frequency, while in noise indued tinnitus it is of high frequency.


Measurments of tinnitus include assessment of the pitch, bandwidth, loudness, maskability of tinnitus and residual inhibition. In tinnitus loudness match the patient is instructed to match the loudness of tinnitus with that of narrow band noise generated at about the same frequency as the tinnitus. Venous causes include benign intracranial hypertension, high jugular bulb and hydrocephalus. These features are caused by changes in the function of nuclei in the ascending pathways, or by redirection of information to regions of CNS that normally donot receive inputs from the auditory system. Whereas objective tinnitus is commonly pulsatile in nature and is also heard by the examiner. A single pure tone masking tone of any frequency may mask a broad band spectrum of tinnitus. Bad plasticity causes hypersensitivity and hyperacitivity by redirecting information to other parts of central nervous system by unmasking dormant synapses.
No loud noise trauma had preceded the tinnitus, as it does for some sufferers — it was suddenly just there.
It has also been suggested that phase locking of the activity in many nerve fibers can also be a cause for tinnitus. Of the 50 million Americans who experience tinnitus at some point in their lives and the 16 million who are bothered enough to seek help, 2 million have it to a degree so severe that it’s debilitating, according to the American Tinnitus Association. Sponsor disclaims any liability for damage to any computer system resulting from participating in, or accessing or downloading information in connection with this Giveaway, and reserve the right, in their sole discretion, to cancel, modify or suspend the Giveaway should a virus, bug, fraud, computer problem, unauthorized intervention or other causes beyond Sponsor’s control, corrupt the administration, security or proper play of the Giveaway.
Rauschecker believes that many understand tinnitus backwards, assuming a causal relationship between the tinnitus and the behavioral problems so common among patients with the condition, as if tinnitus was the cause, and the depression, anxiety and insomnia, the effect.
Using state-of-the-art MRI scanners to peer deep inside the brains of tinnitus patients, Cheung and his team have managed to pinpoint an important source of the phantom noise. His team has developed a five-step program that includes audiology testing and evaluations, the use of external sounds to manage tinnitus, and cognitive behavioral therapy, which teaches coping techniques.
She has since developed a mindfulness program for tinnitus, modeled after techniques used for chronic pain.



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