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Symptoms of schizophrenia paranoid type, best treatment for yeast infection - Review

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Manifestations of paranoid type schizophrenia are delusions and auditory hallucinations (hearing voices that don’t exist)but expressions of emotions and intellectual functions are relatively normal.
It is not clearly understood that what are the real causes of schizophrenia and Depression attached with it, but research has revealed that combination of factors including genetic factors and environmental factors may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. About half of the patients suffering from schizophrenia have been used drugs and alcohol excessively in their previous history.So, drug addiction and consumption of too much alcohol may also contribute towards schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided.Treatment with medications and psycho-social therapy helps to manage the condition.
Schizophrenia is a type of brain disorder in which patient understands the reality abnormally. Psychotic symptoms usually occur every now and then, alternating with periods of remission. Patients with schizophrenia have increased risk for self-destructive behaviors and suicide. Lot of people believe that schizophrenia is a split personality disorder but in reality it is just a myth.
The antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia can have severe side effects, including increased risk of obesity and diabetes.MedicationsSchizophrenia is a chronic condition, which is usually treated with antipsychotic medication. Auditory hallucinations are the most common psychotic symptoms experienced by people with schizophrenia.Delusions. The term schizophrenia, which means "split mind," was first used in 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler to categorize patients whose thought processes and emotional responses seemed disconnected. Schizophrenia is a group of psychotic disorders characterized by disturbances in perception, behavior, and communication that last longer than 6 months. People with schizophrenia may have incoherent or garbled speech patterns or have difficulty expressing themselves in a logical manner.Movement Disorders.
Movement disorders span a spectrum from agitated or repetitive body movements to complete lack of motion or responsiveness (catatonia).Negative SymptomsNegative symptoms indicate an absence of normal emotional responses. Scientists think that schizophrenia may develop from a combination of genetic, brain chemistry, and environmental factors.Genetic FactorsSchizophrenia undoubtedly has a genetic component. The risk for inheriting schizophrenia ranges from about 10% for those who have one first-degree family member (mother, father, sister, brother) with the disease to about 40 - 65% if the disease affects both parents or an identical twin.However, heredity does not explain all cases of schizophrenia. Researchers are seeking the specific genetic factors that may be responsible for schizophrenia.
There is also evidence that schizophrenia may share genetic pathways with other psychotic and psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and autism.Brain Chemistry and StructureBrain Chemistry. Second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia is associated with an unusual imbalance of neurotransmitters (chemicals that act as messengers between nerve cells).

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brains of patients with schizophrenia have revealed structural abnormalities.
A meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons of second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Factors that increase exposure to viruses (living in urban environments, large families, winter and spring births) have been associated with higher risk for schizophrenia.Prenatal and Perinatal Problems. Maternal exposure to viruses, maternal malnutrition, and birth complications (such as a baby experiencing lack of oxygen during delivery) may be linked to schizophrenia.Father’s age. According to some studies, the older a father is when a child is born, the greater the risk is for schizophrenia in his offspring, perhaps because of a greater chance of genetic mutations in the sperm that can be passed on.Childhood trauma. Antipsychotic drugs versus placebo for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Substance abuse, in addition to its other adverse effects, increases the likelihood that a patient will not take medication and will have more severe symptoms.
Although people with schizophrenia are not usually violent (except possibly those who have severe paranoia), substance abuse in the schizophrenic patient increases the risk for violence.Nicotine dependence is the most common form of substance abuse among people with schizophrenia. For some patients, smoking can be a form of self-medication that may help control symptoms.Suicide.
The stresses of dealing with social isolation, discrimination, and stigma can also be factors.Medical IllnessesPatients with untreated schizophrenia are more likely to suffer from poverty, homelessness, and incarceration. If patients do not take their medication and symptoms recur, they can have difficulty caring for themselves and be at risk for developing other medical illnesses.
In addition to a possible link to schizophrenia itself, many antipsychotic medications can raise blood sugar levels. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study.
In addition to dealing with bewildering and frightening symptoms and personality changes, families often need to confront difficult bureaucratic obstacles in finding appropriate care for their loved ones. The flare-up consists of at least two characteristic symptoms (such as hallucinations, delusions, evidence of disorganized thinking and speaking, and emotional unresponsiveness with a flat speaking tone). If the patient has particularly bizarre delusions or hallucinations, these alone will qualify as a diagnostic sign of schizophrenia.If major areas of functioning (work, school, interpersonal relations, self-care) have been significantly affected since the disturbance beganIf certain symptoms are present for at least 6 months, even in the absence of active flare-ups.
Bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and depression can all have psychotic elements that resemble schizophrenia.
Effects of antipsychotic medications on psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia: findings from the NIMH CATIE study. Such medication-induced symptoms are most often observed in elderly patients.TreatmentSchizophrenia is categorized as a brain disease, not a psychological disorder, Drug treatment is the primary therapy. Patients who receive antipsychotic drugs and other treatments during their first episode are admitted to the hospital less often during the following 5 years and may require less time to control symptoms than those who do not seek help as quickly.

Drug Classes Used for SchizophreniaMost drugs that treat schizophrenia work by blocking receptors of the brain chemical (neurotransmitter) dopamine. They include clozapine (Clozaril, generic), risperidone (Risperdal, generic), olanzapine (Zyprexa, generic), quetiapine (Seroquel), ziprasidone (Geodon), aripiprazole (Abilify), paliperidone (Invega), iloperidone (Fanapt), asenapine (Saphris), and lurasidone (Latuda).Which Type of Drug to Choose. In fact, large, high-quality studies that have compared newer and older drugs have generally found that newer atypical antipsychotics are not any more effective than older typical antipsychotics (such as haloperidol), at least for initial treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. Similarly, for treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia, atypical and typical antipsychotics appear to be equally effective, but atypical antipsychotics, particularly clozapine and olanzapine, carry a higher risk for metabolic side effects.Side effect profiles between typical and atypical antipsychotics are different. Some atypical antipsychotics (such as risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and quetapine) are approved for treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents (ages 13 - 17 years). Doctors caution that more research is needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of these drugs for pediatric patients.Treating an Acute or Initial PhaseFor the severe, active phase of schizophrenia, injections of an antipsychotic drug are usually given every few hours until the patient is calm. In patients who are being treated for the first time, improvement in psychotic symptoms may be evident within 1 - 2 days of treatment, although the full benefit of the drug usually manifests over about 6 - 8 weeks.
However, clozapine may have specific benefits for controlling positive symptoms, as well as violent, hostile, or suicidal behaviors.Most atypical antipsychotics come in pill form, but some may come in liquid form or as injections. These effects resemble some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and include the following conditions:Tardive dyskinesia is the most serious extrapyramidal side effect.
Some people are more likely to develop these symptoms, including older patients, women, smokers, people with diabetes, and patients with movement disorders.Acute dystonia typically develops shortly after taking an antipsychotic drug. This syndrome includes abnormal muscle spasms, particularly sustained contortions of the neck, jaw, torso, and eye muscles.Other extrapyramidal symptoms. Sometimes these symptoms mimic schizophrenia itself.Treatment of Extrapyramidal Side Effects.
Some of these drugs may also help in managing negative symptoms of schizophrenia.However, these medicines also have their own, sometimes serious, side effects. Withdrawal from anticholinergics can cause depression that can worsen schizophreniaSupportive Add-On DrugsAntidepressants.
Antidepressants may be given along with antipsychotics to treat depression associated with schizophrenia.Anti-Anxiety Drugs. Lithium, the main drug treatment for bipolar disorder, may be useful for some patients with schizophrenia. Improving patients' abilities to learn, remember, and pay attention may allow them to better cope with ongoing positive symptoms and lead independent lives.
Patients with schizophrenia are taught to critically analyze hallucinations and examine underlying beliefs in them.Psychosocial therapies can also be helpful for addressing alcohol and substance abuse, smoking, and weight gain.

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