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Symptoms of mental illness in young adults, depression treatment and pregnancy - Plans Download

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Older adolescents with MDE and young adults with mental illness generally had poorer quality of life than those without mental illness. In the United States, the transition into adulthood begins in the late teens and continues through the mid-20s.
NSDUH asks persons aged 12 to 17 about past year psychological symptoms to estimate if they had MDE in the past year.
NSDUH asks persons aged 18 or older about past year psychological symptoms to estimate if they had any mental illness (AMI) or serious mental illness (SMI) in the past year.
Understanding the challenges that older adolescents face as they begin to transition into adulthood is important. Older adolescents aged 16 or 17 were more likely than younger adolescents aged 12 to 15 to have had MDE in the past year (11.2 vs. Older adolescents with MDE had a higher rate of treatment for depression than younger adolescents with MDE (39.9 vs. As older adolescents begin to transition into young adulthood, it is important to understand if they have a stable housing situation, are enrolled in school, have insurance coverage, or exhibit delinquent behavior. To understand the challenges that young adults face, it is important to know how many young adults have mental illness or co-occurring mental illness and SUD. Young adults with AMI had a lower rate of mental health service use than adults aged 26 or older with AMI (33.4 vs.
Mental health service use was lower among young adults with SMI than among adults aged 26 or older with SMI (53.0 vs. Compared with young adults without mental illness, young adults with AMI or SMI were more likely to have moved three or more times in the past year (6.7 vs. Compared with young adults without mental illness, young adults with AMI and SMI were more likely to be unemployed (12.3 vs. When young adults with mental illness are able to gain employment, they can still have difficulty maintaining employment.
Young adults with SMI who received treatment in the past year were more likely to be high school graduates than their peers with SMI who did not receive treatment (86.3 vs. Young adults with AMI were more likely than their peers without mental illness to be covered by Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (16.9 vs. To help older adolescents and young adults become healthy and productive members of society, it is essential to understand the mental health and co-occurring substance use issues in this population and how these problems impact their ability to succeed in life. The data in this report indicate that older adolescents with MDE are less likely than their peers without MDE to have the foundation needed to succeed as young adults. 13 Specialty substance use treatment is defined as treatment received at drug or alcohol rehabilitation facilities (inpatient or outpatient), hospitals (inpatient services only), and mental health centers. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 1 Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
2 Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
1 Mental Illness is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder, other than a developmental or substance use disorder that met the criteria found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). During his or her lifetime, every individual experiences feelings of isolation, loneliness or disconnection—some of the symptoms of mental illnesses. 1 out of every 10 Canadians aged 15 and over, or about 2.7 million people, reported symptoms consistent with a mood or anxiety disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug dependence. Other than those who met the criteria for a mood or anxiety disorder or substance dependence, 5.3% of the Canadian population either sought help for mental health problems or felt a need for help but did not receive it. These self-reported estimates may under- represent the true picture in the population since many people with mental illness remain undiagnosed. Mental illnesses affect people in all occupations, education levels, socio-economic conditions and cultures. Seniors were less likely than other age groups to report symptoms consistent with a mood or anxiety disorder or substance dependence during their lifetime. Preventing mental illness among immigrants requires societal, community and individual interventions. Inmates in correctional facilities are more likely than the community population to have present or past mental illness. About 1–2% of inmates have an intellectual disability and a high proportion of these individuals also have a mental illness.
In 2002, about one-third (31%) of female inmates and 15% of male inmates reported emotional or mental health problems at the time of intake. In 1999, more than 4 out of 5 inmates entering prisons in British Columbia (84%) reported symptoms that met the criteria for at least one current or lifetime diagnosis of a mental disorder, including problematic substance use. The high prevalence of mental illnesses and problematic substance use underscores the need for effective assessment and treatment services within correctional services. Mental illnesses among Regular Force service members, particularly depression and post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) contribute heavily to long-term sick leave medical releases. At the request of the Canadian Forces, Statistics Canada administered a slightly modified version of the 2002 Mental Health and Well-being Survey. Whether the difference in prevalence of mental disorders is due to practices associated with military service, recruitment and selection practices, or other factors is unknown.
Mental illness affects every aspect of an individual's life—personal and family relationships, education, work and community involvement. The greater the number of episodes of illness experienced by an individual, the greater the degree of lasting disability.
Adolescence and early adulthood involve important developmental changes, including completing school and developing a career, developing self-confidence and finding their place within the community.
Young adults with a mental illness face greater developmental challenges compared to their peers who do not have a mental health or substance dependence problem. It may be difficult to diagnose mental illness among seniors because they have multiple physical problems that may be confused with or masked by an underlying mental illness.
Mental illnesses have a major impact on the family, in part because the symptoms of mental illness have a major impact on interpersonal relationships. A 2004 caregiver survey21 commissioned jointly by the Women's Health Bureau and the Primary and Continuing Health Care Division of Health Canada found that 70% of those caring for individuals with mental illness are women. According to the 2002 Mental Health and Well- being Survey (CCHS 1.2), an individual with a chronic physical condition was more likely than an individual without such a condition to have met the criteria for one of the mental illnesses during the previous 12 months. Mental illnesses have a major impact on the Canadian economy in terms of both lost productivity and health care costs. According to the 2002 Mental Health and Well- being Survey (CCHS 1.2), many people were embarrassed about and faced discrimination because of their mental illness or mental health problem. The serious stigma attached to mental illnesses is one of the most tragic realities of mental illness in Canada.
A high degree of stigmatization of pregnant women and mothers who are substance users, mothers who are abused by their partners, and mothers with mental illnesses is created by media and public discourse. Seniors with mental illness carry a double burden stemming from the stigma associated with both mental illness and old age. Addressing stigma about mental illnesses is one of the most pressing priorities for improving the mental health of Canadians. Mental illnesses are the result of a complex interaction of genetic, biological, personality and environmental factors with the brain as the final common pathway for the control of behaviour, cognition, mood and anxiety.
Most mental illnesses are found to be more common among close family members, suggesting a genetic basis to the disorders.
Environmental factors, such as family situation, workplace and socio-economic status of the individual, can precipitate the onset or recurrence of a mental illness.
Current research suggests that the risk of developing a mental illness may be related to defects in multiple genes rather than in any single gene. The concept of selection proposes that certain individuals may be predisposed both to a mental illness and to lower expectations and ambition, which in turn result in lower levels of educational and occupational achievement. Direct association between poverty and mental illnesses implies that the social experience of individuals who are poor increases the likelihood of developing a mental illness. Childhood maltreatment refers to "the harm, or risk of harm, that a child or youth may experience while in the care of an adult whom they trust or depend on, including a parent, sibling, other relative, teacher, caregiver or guardian. A unique set of symptoms, such as feelings of powerlessness, dissociative symptoms and self- blame, arises from early and chronic sexual abuse.

In one long-term study, almost 80% of young adults who had been abused as children met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at age 21. Many women's psychological and physical problems are responses to multiple traumas over their lifetime.48 The impact associated with violence is compounded if a woman is socially marginalized, is living in poverty, or has serious mental illness.
All women are vulnerable to violence, regardless of their race, ethnicity, culture, physical and mental ability, age, sexuality or economic status. Any treatment and program planning requires an understanding of the interconnection between violence, mental health and substance use problems. The manner in which services are provided to trauma survivors with a mental illness needs to be carefully planned. Addressing the psychological and social determinants of mental health can not only promote mental health but may also prevent some mental illnesses. Strategies that create supportive environments, strengthen community action, develop personal skills and reorient health services can give the population some control over the psychological and social determinants of mental health.
Given the correlation between a history of severe trauma (such as physical or sexual abuse) and various mental illnesses (dissociative disorders, personality disorders, addictions, post-traumatic stress disorder), preventing such traumas could prevent mental health problems. Individuals and families directly affected by the disorders need information about signs and symptoms of mental illnesses, sources of help, medications, therapy and early warning signs of relapse. Dispelling the myths surrounding mental illnesses requires community education programs, including programs in schools. Under-diagnosis, misdiagnosis and under- treatment of mental illnesses can result in poor outcomes. In the Shared Care Model of mental health care delivery described by a Canadian Psychiatric Association and College of Family Physicians of Canada collaborative working group56, psychiatrists and mental health care workers work with family physicians, providing support and counselling assistance in the daily clinic setting. Other health professions, such as psychology and social work, also provide essential services to those with mental illness.
Hospitalization for a mental illness can assist in diagnosing the illness and stabilizing symptoms. Multidisciplinary teams of physicians, nurses, occupational therapists, pharmacists, social workers and case managers work with the individual and family to identify and respond to the factors that influence symptoms. Reforms of the mental health system of the 1960s and 1970s reduced the number beds in psychiatric institutions. Community mental health programs are varied and range from psychotherapeutic interventions to programs of assertive community treatment, such as mobile crisis teams, crisis stabilization units, community mental health workers in both rural and urban areas, early prevention and intervention programs, programs in schools, safe houses run by consumers, and clubhouse programs. The elderly with mental illness are a prime example of the need for community outreach programs. The workplace can play a critical role in the prevention of mental illness and in the recovery process through the development of a healthy work environment, education of employers and employees on mental health and mental illness, counselling and support, and supportive reintegration into the work environment for those experiencing mental illness. It is important to address the high levels of unemployment and poverty found among people with mental illness and support their desire for work. It is estimated that at least 75% of residents in nursing or personal care homes have a cognitive difficulty, a diagnosed mental illness, or both.58 Some of these facilities now hire a psychiatric nurse as a mental health resource for the facility to develop programs to meet the specific needs of the patient and to educate staff and train them to follow through with the program.
As the level of family income increased, fewer individuals who met the criteria for a mood or anxiety disorder of substance dependence reported that they had unmet needs related to their mental illness.
Severe mental illnesses may affect personal insight to the degree that individuals are unable to recognize how seriously ill they are and voluntarily seek help, or even to accept help when it is offered.
The mental disorder sections of the federal Criminal Code can be used by a judge to require a person who is found unfit to stand trial to receive compulsory psychiatric treatment. Being informed about developing symptoms, or early warning signs, can lead to intervention that can help reduce the severity of an illness. Untreated, these early symptoms may progress to a psychotic episode.That is, the individual may develop irrational beliefs (delusions), serious disturbances in perception (hallucinations), and disordered thought and speech, or become otherwise out of touch with reality. Shame, fear, denial, and other factors often prevent individuals or their families from seeking help, even though the emergence of these symptoms as early as the teenage years is not caused by bad parenting. The minimal risk of starting treatment even before a mental illness appears in its full-blown, diagnosable form is outweighed by the degree of distress a person and their family may already be experiencing by the time they are referred for mental health screening. Education about mental illness and what is happening in the brain can help individuals and families understand the significance of symptoms, how an illness might develop, and what can be done to help. Ongoing individual and family counseling, vocational and educational support, participation in a multi-family problem-solving group, and medication when appropriate, can all be powerful elements of comprehensive treatment to prevent early symptoms from evolving into serious illness. Just as with other medical illnesses, early intervention can make a crucial difference in preventing what could become a lifelong and potentially disabling psychiatric disorder. This can be a stressful process because young people become more self-sufficient and make decisions that shape their futures. Although becoming an adult is often marked by moving out of the parental home, adolescents typically do not relocate repeatedly during a single year.
Obtaining a high school diploma has a lasting economic impact on youths as they transition into adult roles.
Delinquency, including criminal activity, can make the transition to adulthood more difficult.
Residential instability makes it difficult for young persons to transition into adult roles.
Employment is a goal for many young adults as they transition away from financial dependence on their parents. To assess instability in employment, NSDUH asks adults how many employers they have had in the past year.
Having a high school diploma has a tremendous impact on young adults' ability to obtain employment.
For example, compared with their peers without MDE, these youth were more likely to do poorly in school and to engage in delinquent behaviors.
Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Three categories of mental illness severity are defined based on the level of functional impairment: mild mental illness, moderate mental illness, and serious mental illness (SMI). The symptoms of mental illness vary from mild to severe, depending on the type of mental illness, the individual, the family and the socio-economic environment. If these symptoms begin to interfere with everyday functioning, however, the individual may need help to regain balance and restore optimal functioning. Individuals with physical health problems often experience anxiety or depression, which affects their response to the physical illness. At some point in their lives, mental illness will affect most Canadians through a family member, friend or colleague.
As a result, men may focus on physical symptoms and disregard an underlying mental illness or they may use drugs and alcohol to cope with anxiety or depression. This may be an underestimate of mental illness, because the survey did not include those individuals living in nursing homes, retirement homes or chronic care hospitals where depression is common. Mental illness such as depression can arise when immigrants are unable to find meaningful and economically sustaining employment. This is, in part, because the nature of some mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, personality disorders or problematic substance use, is highly associated with participation in illegal acts such as theft and violence. It also points to the importance of policies, programs and services directed at the prevention and early recognition of mental illness and problematic substance use, particularly among youth, to reduce the risk of criminal activity. Service is demanding both physically and emotionally, and mental illness may be a consequence of military service. Receiving and complying with effective treatment and the security of strong social supports, adequate income, housing and educational opportunities are essential elements in minimizing the impact of mental illness.
The enormity of the changes associated with this life stage likely contributes to the development of mental illness and substance dependence among young adults who are predisposed to mental illness. Symptoms of mental illness in seniors may differ from those experienced by younger people, which can make accurate diagnosis and treatment difficult. With these burdens, along with the stigma attached to mental illness, family members often become isolated from the community and their social support network.
In more than one-half of the situations (58%), no one else was available to provide the care—the lack of adequate mental health (58%) or home care services (42%) had thrust them into the role of caregiver. Detecting and treating the depression is as important as treating the physical illness for maintaining quality of life and helping the individual cope with and manage the physical illness. With other mental illnesses, such as major depression, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder, the risk of suicide is also higher than in the general population. Measuring the economic impact of mental illnesses in Canada is hampered by a lack of comprehensive data, not only on the use and cost of services, but also on the economic impact of lost productivity through, for example, absence from work.
This represents only a small part of the economic burden: it does not include workplace costs, third-party insurance costs or the cost of all the mental health professionals who are not covered by the health insurance plans.

By forcing people to remain quiet about their mental illnesses, stigma often causes them to delay seeking health care, avoid following through with recommended treatment, and avoid sharing their concerns with family, friends, co- workers, employers, health service providers and others in the community. Educating the public and the media about mental illness is a first step toward reducing stigma and encouraging greater acceptance and understanding. Personal factors such as age, sex, lifestyle and life events can contribute to the onset of mental illnesses. The development of a mental illness is likely the result of an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Many studies have found that socio-economic status is inversely related to the development of mental illnesses.
On the other hand, a milder undiagnosed mental illness makes it difficult for individuals to achieve success in the complex post-industrial society. This indirect association between poverty and mental illness may be mitigated by the "class" effect, whereby the networks of support around people in higher socio-economic classes prevent their drift into poverty. For the individual, such factors as secure attachment, good parenting, friendship and social support, meaningful employment and social roles, adequate income, physical activity and an internal locus of control will strengthen mental health and help to reduce the impact or incidence of some mental health problems. Placing treatment within a recovery model, however, helps individuals go beyond symptom reduction toward improving their quality of life. As one recovers, symptoms interfere with functioning less often and for briefer periods of time. Recovery from the consequences of the illness is sometimes more difficult than recovering from the illness itself. Such programs could help reduce the stigma associated with mental illnesses and improve the early recognition of a problem.
As a result, educating primary care physicians to properly recognize, diagnose and treat most mental illnesses within a recovery model and to know when to refer to others is a crucial factor in optimizing the care that they provide.
They also help the individual and family understand and cope with their personal response to the mental illness. Many individuals with a mental illness moved from chronic care facilities back into the community. A team aims to ensure adherence with treatment (particularly for those with schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses) and, consequently, improve functioning in order to reduce the need for hospital readmission.
Consumer- or survivor-run businesses have proven effective in restoring employment among individuals with mental illnesses.
Support is also required to ensure adequate income and safe housing for individuals with mental illnesses.
Mental health laws have been put in place to address situations in which an untreated mental illness is likely to cause significant harm to the person or others. But a person experiencing several together that are causing serious problems in his or her ability to study, work, or relate to others should be seen by a mental health professional.
But help is available and treatments for major mental illnesses are more effective than ever before. For example, families can learn the harmful role that stress can play in accelerating symptoms, and ways to reduce it. Individuals with both a mental health issue and a substance use disorder are defined as having a co-occurring mental health problem and SUD. However, frequent relocations can make it difficult for youths to develop the foundations needed for the transition to adulthood. Among adolescents aged 16 to 17, youths with MDE were equally likely to be enrolled in high school as their peers without MDE; however, adolescents with MDE do not share the same level of academic success as their peers.
Among those who are already in their young adult years, NSDUH data indicate that young adults with mental illness or co-occurring mental illness and SUD have poorer quality of life. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental health findings (HHS Publication No. Predictors of mental health service use in young adulthood: Results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Mental illnesses take many forms, including mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and addictions such as substance dependence and gambling. Individuals with mental illnesses can develop physical symptoms and illnesses, such as weight loss and the biological disturbances associated with eating disorders, or depression contributing to diabetes or a heart attack.
Some individuals may attempt to manage symptoms through alcohol or drugs, leading to problematic substance use. Whether or not these stressors lead to mental illness is likely the result of the interaction between vulnerabilities, stressors, social resources and personal strengths. Another health condition, foetal alcohol syndrome caused by heavy alcohol intake during pregnancy, contributes to behaviour problems in adolescents and adults that can result in conflict with the law. For men, the loss of structure and role after retirement may contribute to the impact of mental illness on their life. Without help, young adults with a mental illness may not develop the life skills, independence and self-confidence that they need for not only at this point in their lives, but also in the future. 20 In addition, symptoms of anxiety or depression may be incorrectly considered part of the aging process and not be recognized as a treatable condition. Families sometimes live with the unnecessary, self-induced guilt that they caused the illness. Symptoms of mental illness remain strongly connected with public fears about potential violence and with a desire for limited social interaction.27 Yet very few people with mental illness are violent. When combined with a genetic predisposition, poverty can contribute to the development of mental illnesses. Children and youth who bully are more likely to engage in other forms of aggression, including sexual harassment and dating violence in adolescence.
Since mental illnesses arise from disorders of brain functioning, medication is often an important part of treatment. The hospital can also serve as a safe and supportive environment when the risk of suicide is high or judgement is severely compromised by the presence of mental illness. Communities have faced major challenges in helping both these individuals and those newly diagnosed with severe mental illness to create a reasonable quality of life in the community. For example, relocating can make it difficult for youths to complete their high school education. Furthermore, if a young person is experiencing mental illness, relocating may hinder his or her ability to receive consistent mental health services. However, insurance coverage was similar among young adults regardless of whether they had mental illness. For example, they were less likely to be employed and more likely to experience residential instability than those without mental illness.
This percentage does not include people who had to leave the workplace because of their mental illness. Given women's lower wages and less access to economic resources, this represents a significant additional financial pressure due to mental illness.
In this situation, then, there is an indirect association between poverty and mental illnesses. Creating and distributing consensus treatment guidelines is a first step to increased knowledge about mental illnesses, their diagnosis and treatment.
Additionally, if a young person has mental health issues, relocating may hinder his or her ability to receive consistent mental health services. Correlates of mental health service use intensity in the National Comorbidity Survey and National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Health care providers without specialized training in seniors' mental health may not be able to effectively diagnose or treat seniors' problems. To assess residential stability, NSDUH asks youths how many times they have moved in the past year. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report: Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. In this report, youths who have moved three or more times in the past year are considered to have high residential instability.

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