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14.04.2014

Sleep disturbance scale, download ebook hacking website for newbie - How to DIY

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Psychologists have devoted little attention to contemplating the effect of worry on the sleep patterns of college students. Getting a good night sleep under worrisome circumstances is often a problem for college students. Previous research on the relationship between worry and sleep quality has not adequately addressed worry. To assess sleep disturbance attributed to worry, past research has tended to focus on measures of anxiety rather than worry; this suggests that the two generate equivalent results. Nevertheless, it was proposed that worrying was not a factor for short sleepers since they had better coping styles that tended to minimize stressors.
In studying sleep patterns, McCann and Stewin (1988) were the first researchers to independently assess worry and anxiety.
In an attempt to improve upon the methodologies in the McCann and Stewin study (1988), Kelly (2002) developed the Sleep Disturbance Ascribed to Worry Scale. To further explore the notion that individuals who worry are susceptible to developing sleep disturbances, Kelly (2002) calculated a simple regression with worry as the predictor variable and sleep length as the criterion. When evaluating worry amongst college students, it is essential to use a scale that is relevant in a college environment.
In order to further develop understanding of the Sleep Disturbance Ascribed to Worry Scale, Kelly (2003a) examined whether or not certain variables, such as anxiety and stress, related to sleep disturbance attributed to worry. The extent to which sleep disturbance attributed to worry could be considered separate from anxiety was also investigated (Kelly 2003a).
Kelly's (2003a) findings question the direct influence of general worry on sleep disturbance attributed to worry. Worry can certainly be measured by a variety of factors, but the social and academic demands of undergraduate life greatly interfere with college sleep habits (McCann and Stewin 1988). Few researchers have investigated whether worry over specific domains of stressors would predict sleep patterns. Considering various sources of worry in an academic setting will allow psychologists to better understand the complex relationship between worry and sleep among college students.
Since the independent variable of academic worry was hypothesized to predict the dependent variable of sleep length, a correlational survey was chosen as the research strategy.
Our first hypothesis was that students who have more academic worries will report less sleep than those with less academic worries. To assess the relation of academic worry and sleep length, a Pearson correlation was calculated. The relationship between SAW scores and scores on the Academic Stress Scale was also evaluated. Next, a multiple regression was calculated to examine the influence of SAW scores on the relationship between academic worry and sleep length. Also consistent with our prediction, sleep disturbance ascribed to worry was negatively correlated with sleep length. It also seems that academic worry and sleep length are negatively correlated irrespective of sleep disturbance ascribed to worry. Nevertheless, college students who tend to worry about academics more often than other college students tend to sleep less.
The cognitive activity of worry is thus an important determinant of sleep disturbance in college students. But to understand why increased levels of cognitive worry lead to less sleep, we must consider the development of the human brain.
This research has suggested that academic worry has a significant effect on sleep length in a college population. Differences in sleep length between worriers and non-worriers may have been so pronounced due to the conditions under which the study was conducted. It was concluded that academic worry and sleep disturbance ascribed to worry were both negatively correlated with sleep length. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by focusing on academic worries and its effect on length of sleep. Shorter sleepers, for instance, avoided problems through a process of denial that was fostered through their high activity levels. This scale was specifically designed to evaluate the amount of sleep disturbance attributed to worry. Worry was assessed with the Worry Domains Questionnaire, while anxiety was assessed with the Costello-Comrey Anxiety scale (Costello and Comrey 1967; as cited in Kelly 2003a). If ascribing sleep disturbance to worry, an individual seemingly must also experience worry. Since Kelly (2003a) found a significant relationship between anxiety and sleep disturbance ascribed to worry, previous research on academic anxiety is relevant to the current study.
Kelly (2003b) reexamined the effect of worry on sleep duration, using the Worry Domains Questionnaire to distinguish worry content associated with decreased sleep length in college students. The design was suitable to assess the ramifications that worry has on the sleep patterns of a general population of undergraduate students. Kelly's (2002) Sleep Disturbance Ascribed to Worry (SAW) scale was used to assess sleep disturbances attributed to worry. In order to examine the presence of academic worry, the 35-item Academic Stress Scale was administered (Kohn and Frazer 1986). Since the surveys were administered during midterms, we attempted to relate to the students by identifying the survey as a way to alleviate stress and further our understanding of the effect of their academic worry on sleep patterns.


It was hypothesized that an increase in sleep disturbance ascribed to worry would predict less sleep. Since the SAW scale is a measure of sleep disturbance because of worry and the Academic Stress Scale assesses amount of student worry, the two were expected to be positively related. First, a simple regression was computed to test the relationship between worry and habitual sleep length, using sleep length as the criterion and academic worry scores as the predictor variable. Sleep length was the criterion variable; SAW and academic worry scores were the predictor variables. Sleep disturbance ascribed to worry and length of sleep were established as indicators of sleep quality.
Sleep disturbance attributed to worry may not be the only factor leading to less sleep in worriers.
Contradictory to the suggestions of Kelly (2003b), the domain of academic worry has consequential ramifications for sleep quality.
Watts, Coyle, and East (1994) suggest that increased levels of mental activity associated with work-related situations are apparent in individuals suffering from loss of sleep. Students who have been told that they would have to present a speech on a given topic when they awoke from their sleep have been shown to need almost twice as long to fall asleep as students who were not told anything (Watts et al.
In addition to the single-item measure of sleep length, sleep diaries could also be considered as a measure of sleep length because studies need to go beyond the use of questionnaires. Support for additional examination of worry as a determinant of sleep length is provided by our results.
It was proposed that students who have more academic worries would report less sleep than those who have less academic worries.
Participants indicated the degree to which they felt they were a worrier or nonworrier on a 9-point Likert scale.
Rather than examining habitual sleep length, the researchers only considered preferred amount of sleep.
The study further set out to clarify the relationship between worry and habitual sleep length with the use of the Worry Domains Questionnaire (Tallis, Eysenck, and Mathews 1992; as cited in Kelly 2002).
Individuals with more sleep disturbances resulting from worry were found to be characterized by increased worry frequency, pathological worrying, perceptions of stress, and trait anxiety.
Nevertheless, individuals who experience sleep disturbance as a result of worry do not need to experience worry simultaneously with anxiety to attribute sleep disturbance to worry.
In examining the anxiety levels of short and long sleeping college students, Hicks, Pellegrini, and Hawkins (1979) found that short sleepers were only more anxious than long sleepers when their anxiety was related to situations involving evaluation of their achievement in college.
They found that the emotional responses to stressors, such as worry and anxiety, were the best predictors of depth of sleep, difficulty in waking up, quality and latency of sleep, and sleep irregularity, rather than environmental events (e.g.
The results indicated that work-related worries and financial difficulties did not predict decreased sleep.
Aside from allowing us to evaluate our prediction, the use of this technique permitted us to indicate whether or not the relationship between worry and sleep is consistent with recent research that has failed to reinforce the findings of Hartmann et al. The SAW has been the only scale developed as a specific measure of the attribution of sleep disturbance to worry, the effects of worry on sleep, and the frequency of sleep disturbance ascribed to worry. The demographics sheet requested information about the participants' gender, year in school, and amount of time, in hours and minutes, that they habitually sleep, on average in every 24-hour period. Furthermore, since the sample contained more females than males, gender differences for sleep length, academic worry, and total SAW scores were explored.
In order to account for SAW variance in the relationship between sleep length and worry, SAW scores were entered first into the equation.
The relationship between sleep disturbance ascribed to worry and sleep length, though, appeared to exist irrespective of academic worry.
These relationships among academic worry, sleep disturbance ascribed to worry, and sleep length are present because academic worry attenuated the predictive power of the SAW when entered into the multiple regression model. Cognitive arousal in terms of academic worry seems to hold relevance in determining daily sleep.
Thus, the brain is resilient when facing decreased levels of cortical activity in short sleepers, attempting to offset this low arousal. Worry and identity attainment are consequently related to sleep disturbance (Wagner, Lorion, and Shipley 1983).
It further illustrates that specific domains of worry, particularly academic worry, can have consequential effects on sleep behavior. Since frequency of test taking was probably higher than normal, our sample might have been experiencing more worry and less sleep than usual.
It may be more valuable to obtain reports about the thought content of individuals experiencing sleep disturbance to examine the focus of worry.
The findings cannot be interpreted as evidence of a causal link between academic worry and sleep length since the study was correlational in nature.
It was also proposed that an increase in sleep disturbances attributed to worry would predict less sleep. Anxiety, though, was evaluated on a much more extensive scale, using Speilberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene's (1970, as cited in McCann and Stewin 1988) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Hence, worry, anxiety, and stress were foundational for sleep disturbance ascribed to worry to develop. On the other hand, short and long sleepers did not show a significant difference in anxiety levels when assessed on a Death Anxiety Scale (Templer 1970; as cited in Hicks et al. The Academic Stress Scale measures the degree of academic worry across three subscales: physical, psychological, and psychosocial.


Furthermore, the predictive validity of the Academic Stress Scale has been found to be satisfactory (Burnett and Fanshawe 1996). Hence, academic worry is not the sole contributor to less sleep and does not predict sleep patterns above and beyond sleep disturbance ascribed to worry. Since total SAW scores were significantly positively correlated with academic worry scores, overlapping between academic worry and sleep disturbance attributed to worry was probably responsible for this effect.
Increased levels of cognitive activity may act as compensation for the lower levels of cortical arousal exhibited by short sleepers (Kelly 2002).
Furthermore, individuals with sleep disturbances repeatedly complained of higher levels of cognitive intrusions (Watts et al. Seemingly, short sleepers would exhibit cognitive symptoms to compensate for low cortical levels.
Therefore, sleep disturbances are displayed by those college students who have less effectively resolved the identity crisis (Wagner et al. Explanations for sleep disturbances, however, are certainly not limited to sleep disturbance ascribed to worry and academic worry.
Hence, the content of students' thoughts should be evaluated while they are lying in bed unable to sleep, or during the time leading up to when they go to sleep.
To examine these hypotheses, college students were assessed on habitual sleep length, the Sleep Disturbance Ascribed to Worry Scale, and the Academic Stress Scale.
For this reason, the current study intends to address this gap in understanding the relationship between worry and sleep in a college environment.
It is also hypothesized that an increase in sleep disturbances attributed to worry will predict less sleep.
Kelly (2002) examined validity for the SAW by asking 46 participants to describe the general quality of their sleep on an 11-point Likert scale ranging from awful to great.
Results supported the prediction that sleep disturbance ascribed to worry will lead to less sleep. Therefore, it is possible that less sleep as a result of worry may be due to factors other than academic worry, such as relationship or financial worry. Additional variables may be involved in determining sleep length, especially since SAW scores and academic worry scores accounted for a low percentage of variance.
Even though the worry scale assessed general, everyday stressors, the SAW scale evaluated usual sleep patterns, and sleep was measured as habitual length, responses may still have been influenced. Nevertheless, worry certainly affects the sleep of college students in an environment exemplified by constant pressures and identity formation.
The psychological differences between habitual short and long sleepers suggest that sleep-length requirements may be inextricably linked with attempts to cope with worrisome experiences. Therefore, in order to better understand the relationship between worry and sleep among college students, it is essential to identify the specific sources of worry in a university setting. Moreover, the experience of stress elicits the sleep disturbance that coincides with worry (Kelly 2003a). They indicate that college students who are characterized by more academic worries sleep less. The attribution of less sleep to the arousal of academic worry is evident from these results. Hicks and Garcia (1987) have also assessed the effect of stress on sleep duration, contending that the increased presence of stressors reduces sleep. Short sleepers, therefore, may demonstrate increases in worry as their brain attempts to return their cortical levels to normal. Future research should focus on a more long-term study of the relationship between worry and sleep, making sure to evaluate students under situations that yield varying degrees of worry. The results indicated that academic worry and sleep disturbance ascribed to worry were negatively correlated with sleep length. Forming an identity in a college environment is indeed difficult, as common worries can have significant behavioral consequences, particularly on sleep patterns. These results suggest that long sleepers are inclined to worry more than short sleepers, providing support for the conclusions of Hartmann et al (1972). The decrease in sleep during periods of high stress can be accredited to higher than normal levels of both anxiety and worry (Hicks and Garcia 1987). Thus, these results provide further evidence that a different scale should be used to examine worry among college students.
Consequently, identity attainment may contribute to the reduction of worry, and thus may increase in sleep length. Regression analyses further indicated that academic worry does not predict sleep length above and beyond sleep disturbance ascribed to worry, and that academic worry was significantly negatively related to sleep length regardless of sleep disturbance ascribed to worry. Psychologists, though, have devoted little attention to investigating the ramifications that academic worries have on sleep behaviors. Thus, the current study will clearly analyze the amount of worry experienced by college students, and examine the implications it has for sleep. In this study, the relevance of worry will be examined in relation to quality of sleep in undergraduate college students.



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