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28.02.2014

Ringing in the ears a symptom or sign of multiple sclerosis, best tinnitus treatment homeopathic remedies - Review

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
The exact cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, but it is believed to be any combination of immunologic, environmental, infectious, or genetic factors. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder where the body perceives its own myelin (the sheath around the nerves) as an intruder and attacks it, as it would a virus or other foreign infectious agent. There are four different types of multiple sclerosis that have been identified and each type can have symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) is the most common type of MS, affecting about 85% of sufferers. Primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) is characterized by steady worsening of neurologic functioning, without any relapses or remissions.
Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS) is a form of MS that follows relapsing-remitting MS. Progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (PR-MS) is the least common form of MS, occurring in about 5% of patients.
Symptoms of multiple sclerosis may be single or multiple and may range from mild to severe in intensity and short to long in duration. Multiple sclerosis is often difficult to diagnose as symptoms are so varied and can resemble other diseases. One of the main ways to diagnose multiple sclerosis is an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Corticosteroids are drugs that reduce inflammation in the body and affect the function of the immune system. Continued from the last slide, this table lists common multiple sclerosis symptoms, and the treatments often used, along with possible complications. There has been a lot of progress over the years in managing multiple sclerosis, and research is ongoing into new therapies. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that progressively damages the nerves of the brain and spinal cord.
Any sensory or motor (muscular) function in the body may be affected by the nerves damaged from MS. There are four different types of multiple sclerosis and symptoms range from mild to severe. Most cases of tinnitus are subjective, but occasionally the tinnitus can be heard by an examiner. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. With MS, the immune system attacks and damages or destroys the myelin, a substance that surrounds and insulates the nerves, causing a distortion or interruption in nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain. Most people are diagnosed between the ages of 20 to 50, though it can also occur in young children and the elderly. Researchers are examining the possible role of viruses in the cause of MS, but this is still unproven. This causes inflammation and degeneration of the myelin and can lead to demyelination, or stripping of the myelin covering of the nerves.
The different types of MS can help predict the course of the disease and the patient's response to treatment. RR-MS is defined by inflammatory attacks on the myelin and nerve fibers causing a worsening of neurologic function. There may be occasional plateaus, but overall the progression of the disability is continuous. People with PR-MS experience steady disease progression and worsening neurological function as seen in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS), along with occasional relapses like people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS).


Many medications carry the risk of some side effects so patients need to manage their treatment with their doctors. This table (continued on the next slide) lists common multiple sclerosis symptoms, and the treatments often used, along with possible complications. There are several new avenues of research including techniques to allow brain cells to generate new myelin or prevent the death of nerves. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Symptoms vary from patient to patient, and symptoms can flare up (called relapses or exacerbations) unexpectedly, and then disappear (remission). This form of MS occurs equally in men and women, and the age of onset is about 10 years later than in relapsing-remitting MS.
After a period of relapses (also called attacks, or exacerbations) and remissions the disease will start to progress steadily.
On the left is a brain MRI of a 35-year-old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis that reveals multiple lesions with high T2 signal intensity and one large white matter lesion.
Other research involves use of stem cells that might be implanted into the brain or spinal cord to regrow the cells that have been destroyed by the disease. MS is believed to have a genetic component as people with a first degree relative with the disease have a higher incidence than the general population. This causes electrical impulses to travel more slowly along the nerves resulting in deterioration of function in body processes such as vision, speech, walking, writing, and memory. An identical twin of someone with MS has a 25% chance of being diagnosed with the disorder. The most common symptoms of RR-MS include fatigue, numbness, problems with vision, muscle spasms or stiffness, bowel and bladder function problems, and cognitive difficulties. The right image shows the cervical spinal cord of a 27-year-old woman representing a multiple sclerosis demyelination and plaque (see arrow).
Some therapies being investigated include methods that would improve the nerve impulse signals. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the MedicineNet Site. It is thought there is an outside trigger and genetics only makes certain people susceptible to getting MS which is why the disease is not considered hereditary – genes may make a person more likely to develop the disease but it is believed there still is an additional outside trigger that makes it happen. In addition the effects of diet and the environment on multiple sclerosis are being investigated.
Objective tinnitus usually is caused by vascular abnormalities of the carotid artery or jugular venous systems.
Epidemiologic data reveal that approximately one fourth of persons with tinnitus are discomforted by it, whereas the remaining three fourths experience the condition without significant symptoms.3Tinnitus takes different forms and has different classification proposals. One classification system stresses distinctions between vibratory and nonvibratory types, while another system groups the different forms of tinnitus into subjective or objective classes.Vibratory tinnitus is caused by transmission to the cochlea of vibrations from adjacent tissues or organs.
Nonvibratory tinnitus is produced by biochemical changes in the nerve mechanism of hearing.Subjective tinnitus, which is more common, is heard only by the patient. Objective tinnitus can be heard through a stethoscope placed over head and neck structures near the patient's ear.The mechanism that produces tinnitus remains poorly understood.
Tinnitus may originate at any location along the auditory pathway from the cochlear nucleus to the auditory cortex. Some leading theories include injured cochlear hair cells that discharge repetitively and stimulate auditory nerve fibers in a continuous cycle, spontaneous activity in individual auditory nerve fibers, hyperactivity of the auditory nuclei in the brain stem, or a reduction in the usual suppressive activity of the central auditory cortex on peripheral auditory nerve activity.4This article discusses the causes of subjective and objective tinnitus, and techniques used for evaluating tinnitus. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the inhibition of sound transmission to the inner ear.


The most common etiologic factors are noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), or the progressive loss of acuity that occurs with advancing age (presbycusis).NIHL is the most common type of acquired hearing loss. Screening for exposure to excessive or loud noises can be performed during routine health maintenance visits.11 Continued counseling about the risk of hearing loss is warranted if the patient is exposed to damaging sounds. It is continuous and less disturbing than the tinnitus of Meniere's disease.14Ototoxic medications or substances are another common cause of bilateral tinnitus. Currently, almost every major group of medication includes one or more compounds with ototoxic properties (Table 2).2,10,15 Ototoxicity may affect hair cells, the eighth cranial nerve, or their central nervous connections. Temporomandibular joint disorder has been associated with vertigo and tinnitus, although the exact mechanism is unclear.Various metabolic abnormalities may be associated with tinnitus. These abnormalities include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and vitamin B12 or zinc deficiency.Many patients with tinnitus exhibit signs of psychologic disorders.
Although tinnitus may be a contributing factor to the development of depression, the common association of tinnitus and depression may be the result when depressed patients, particularly those with sleep disturbances, focus and dwell on their tinnitus more than patients who are without an underlying psychologic disorder.OBJECTIVE TINNITUSObjective tinnitus is rare. Arterial bruits may be transmitted to the ear from arterial vessels near the temporal bone.
The petrous carotid system is the most common source.2 Patients experience worsening of symptoms at night and usually do not have other otologic complaints. Venous hums may be heard in patients with hypertension or abnormally high placement of the jugular bulb. This type of tinnitus is a soft, low-pitched venous hum, which can be altered by head position, activity, or pressure over the jugular vein.4Congenital arteriovenous shunts are usually asymptomatic, while the acquired type often are associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Glomus tumor is a vascular neoplasm arising from the paraganglia around the carotid bifurcation, the jugular bulb, or the tympanic arteries. The symptoms may disappear with Valsalva's maneuver or when the patient lies down with the head in a dependent position.Evaluation of TinnitusHISTORYThe evaluation of a patient with tinnitus begins by taking a thorough history. Tinnitus associated with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss is the hallmark of acoustic neuroma.PatternContinuous tinnitus accompanies hearing loss. The external canal and tympanic membrane should be inspected for signs of cerumen impaction, perforation, or infection. The cranial nerves should be examined for evidence of brain-stem damage or hearing loss.9 Auscultation over the neck, periauricular area, orbits, and mastoid should be performed. Tinnitus of venous origin can be suppressed by compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein.Specific testing for sensorineural or conductive hearing loss is the next part of the examination. In the Weber test, the tuning fork is struck and placed on the midline of the forehead, the nasal bridge, or the chin.
The sound lateralizes to the opposite ear in patients with a sensorineural hearing loss, but to the same side in those with a conductive hearing loss.
Patients with normal hearing or equal deafness in both ears hear the sound at the same level in both ears.In the Rinne test, the tuning fork is placed against the mastoid process to measure the conduction of sound by bone.
When the sound can no longer be heard, the tuning fork is placed in front of the auditory canal to test air conduction.
Pure tone testing primarily tests the function of the peripheral portion of the hearing apparatus. Sound must be interpreted in the central nervous system before it can be useful to the patient. Further investigation should be dictated by the index of suspicion created by the history, physical examination, and audiometric profile (Figure 1). Because pulsatile tinnitus suggests a vascular abnormality, the preferred imaging study is contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain21 (Figure 2).




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Comments to “Ringing in the ears a symptom or sign of multiple sclerosis”

  1. Santa_Banta:
    For someone who specializes in craniosacral therapy – video showing additional.
  2. iblis_066:
    Had a mild-moderate hearing loss blocks the canal and reduces hearing, a physician may.