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Medical history, your current and past these abnormalities include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hyperlipidemia because of the multifactorial nature.


Multiple myeloma symptoms of end stage, sensorineural deafness causes - For Begninners

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Patient information: See related handout on multiple myeloma, written by the authors of this article.
The long bones, ribs, skull, and pelvis are also commonly involved, and most patients have multiple lytic skeletal lesions. Environmental factors likely interact with underlying genetic factors to increase the risk of multiple myeloma. Patients with smoldering multiple myeloma should receive close follow-up with laboratory tests every three to four months.6,16Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma who are younger than 65 years, and for older patients who are physically able to undergo the treatment.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma. The intravenous bisphosphonates used in patients with multiple myeloma are pamidronate (Aredia), 90 mg every four weeks, and zoledronic acid (Zometa), 4 mg every four weeks.22 Oral bisphosphonates have not been proven effective.
Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression.
Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma. The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases.
Bisphosphonates are also effective in treating hypercalcemia25 and should be initiated in patients not already receiving them.Renal insufficiency is common with multiple myeloma.
Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated. Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible. It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications.

There is an even smaller subgroup (3 percent of multiple myeloma cases) with undetectable serum or urine M proteins on electrophoresis or immunofixation.
Five-year survival rates approach 33 percent, and the median survival rate is 33 months.Multiple myeloma is the most common primary bone malignancy. Although positron emission tomography with CT is not the standard of care, it is being used for staging and follow-up. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry has no role in diagnosing multiple myeloma, and nuclear bone scans are not helpful because of the lack of osteoblastic activity.6Several additional biochemical and genetic markers have been shown to correlate with prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, but they should not be used for diagnosis.
International staging system for multiple myeloma [published correction appears in J Clin Oncol.

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