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26.06.2014

Hearing test premature babies, ear infection toddler - PDF Review

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Hearing is critical in the first few years of life for social emotional and cognitive development.
Tympanometry is not a hearing test but a procedure that can show how well the eardrum moves when a soft sound and air pressure are introduced in the ear canal. The WA Newborn Hearing Screening Program achieved state-wide coverage in 2010 and now screens in public, private, metropolitan and regional maternity services across WA. 1-2 babies in every 1,000 are born with a hearing loss in both ears (bilateral hearing loss).
Your baby’s hearing will be screened by Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR). If your baby does have one of the above-mentioned risk factors, please inform the person who is performing the hearing screen. Please contact your GP, child health nurse or paediatrician if at any time you have any concerns about your child's hearing ability or language development. Current evidence suggests that Nigeria has the highest proportion of developmentally disadvantaged children in the world, excluding those with hearing loss.20 Nonetheless, the present standard of maternal and child health care in the country makes the primary prevention of PCEHL untenable. At each of the community centres infants were tested using TEOAE in a designated room in which the ambient noise level did not interfere with the proper functioning of the screening instruments. Data tracking and management software (HI*TRACK for Windows Version 3.5 Desktop, National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management, Logan, UT, United States of America) was used to monitor the screening programme and to track mothers so that losses to follow-up could be minimized.
In addition, every tenth infant who passed TEOAE was scheduled for AABR testing to ascertain the rate of false-negative screening results. A total of 1762 infants were classified as true negatives: the 1716 infants who passed the TEOAE test plus the 57 infants who failed the TEOAE test but subsequently passed the AABR test less the 11 infants who passed the TEOAE test but subsequently failed the AABR test. With some conditions, a baby's hearing may be normal at birth but gradually worsen over time.
Thus, 172 of the 1716 (10%) infants who passed the TEOAE test were selected to undergo AABR testing, and 75 (44%) of them returned.
This supports the view that non-specialists could play an increasing role in the provision of basic community-oriented hearing health-care services and validates recent initiatives addressed at reducing the shortage of health workers in resource-poor settings.1,23,30,31 Equally noteworthy is the feasibility of using routine immunization clinics as an effective platform for conducting infant hearing screening in a developing country.


The number of babies who met our inclusion criterion but did not attend screening could not be determined because there was a lack of reliable data from the local health authority. This study has demonstrated that permanent hearing loss is a highly prevalent developmental disability in Nigeria and that it is possible to detect it early in established primary care centres using community health workers. The support of the Federal Health Minister and the Lagos State Commissioner for Health in launching this pilot universal infant hearing screening project in Lagos is also gratefully acknowledged. Global burden of childhood hearing impairment and disease control priorities for developing countries. The pattern of development from non-communicative behaviour of language by hearing impaired infants. Language ability in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment: The influence of early management and family participation.
A critical review of the role of neonatal hearing screening in the detection of congenital hearing impairment.
Year 2007 Position Statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries.
Practical screening priorities for hearing impairment among children in developing countries. Universal hearing screening using transient otoacoustic emissions in a community health clinic. Universal newborn screening for permanent childhood hearing impairment: an 8-year follow-up of a controlled trial.
The use of non-specialist personnel in providing a service for children disabled by hearing impairment. Feasibility of otoacoustic emission detection followed by ABR as a universal neonatal screening test for hearing impairment.
Feasibility of community-based hearing screening using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions.


Community based universal neonatal hearing screening by health visitors using otoacoustic emissions. Feasibility of implementing a universal neonatal hearing screening programme using distortion product otoacoustic emission detection at a university hospital in Hong Kong.
The Rhode Island Hearing Assessment Programme: experience with statewide hearing screening (1993-1996). Even a mild or partial hearing loss can affect a child’s ability to speak and understand language. A normal recording is associated with healthy outer hair cell function and reflects normal hearing, although in some cases the hearing loss may be due to problems in other parts of the hearing pathway. Babies who were referred following first-stage screening were scheduled for AABR screening within one week at one of the four community centres.
Of these 75 babies, 14 (18.7%) were referred for diagnostic evaluation and PCEHL was confirmed in 11. The data management software was donated by the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management, USA. The pediatric audiology staff at Metro Hearing has been specially trained to diagnose and treat hearing loss in children age four and above. Thus, of the 1855 babies who completed screening protocol, 45 were found to have PCEHL (i.e. These studies would provide the basis for an economic analysis of the programme and would guide the systematic implementation of this vital public health intervention within the stepwise framework already articulated by WHO.46 It is pertinent also to note that the coverage offered by a universal newborn hearing screening programme that is carried out along with routine immunization will always be constrained by the actual coverage of the specific vaccination at any point in time, a risk that is common to all add-on interventions.
Hearing International Nigeria, a local charitable organization, provided financial support for all the operational costs of the project. Follow-up counselling and interventions, including the provision of hearing aids where appropriate, were provided for parents of babies in whom severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed, while ongoing parental surveillance was recommended for babies with mild-to-moderate or unilateral hearing loss.



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