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22.06.2015

Hearing loss labyrinthitis, treatment for major depressive disorder with psychotic features - For You

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Symptoms of Labyrinthitis typically include loss of balance (vertigo), nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), nausea, hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and mild headaches. Vestibular neuritis and labyrinthitis are disorders resulting from an infection that inflames the inner ear or the nerves connecting the inner ear to the brain. The hearing function involves the cochlea, a snail-shaped tube filled with fluid and sensitive nerve endings that transmit sound signals to the brain.
Neuritis (inflammation of the nerve) affects the branch associated with balance, resulting in dizziness or vertigo but no change in hearing.
Labyrinthitis (inflammation of the labyrinth) occurs when an infection affects both branches of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve, resulting in hearing changes as well as dizziness or vertigo.
Inner ear infections that cause vestibular neuritis or labyrinthitis are usually viral rather than bacterial.
In serous labyrinthitis, bacteria that have infected the middle ear or the bone surrounding the inner ear produce toxins that invade the inner ear via the oval or round windows and inflame the cochlea, the vestibular system, or both. Less common is suppurative labyrinthitis, in which bacterial organisms themselves invade the labyrinth.
Some of the viruses that have been associated with vestibular neuritis or labyrinthitis include herpes viruses (such as the ones that cause cold sores or chicken pox and shingles), influenza, measles, rubella, mumps, polio, hepatitis, and Epstein-Barr.
Many people with chronic neuritis or labyrinthitis have difficulty describing their symptoms, and often become frustrated because although they may look healthy, they don’t feel well. When other illnesses have been ruled out and the symptoms have been attributed to vestibular neuritis or labyrinthitis, medications are often prescribed to control nausea and to suppress dizziness during the acute phase. Physicians and audiologists will review test results to determine whether permanent damage to hearing has occurred and whether hearing aids may be useful. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing loss, occurring in 23% of population older than 65 years of age.
Infections, such as meningitis, are a common cause of hearing loss in children where it occurs in approximately 20% of those with streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis (Heckenberg et al 2011). Noise induced hearing loss is a permanent hearing impairment resulting from prolonged exposure to high levels of noise.


Children who are born prematurely or contract certain infections in utero are at a higher risk of hearing loss (Hille et al 2007, Roizen 2003). While very unusual, acoustic neuromas or metastatic cancer (particularly breast) can be a source of hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss (SHL) is defined as greater than 30 dB hearing reduction, over at least three contiguous frequencies, occurring over 72 hours or less. Sensory presbyacusis is caused by loss of sensory elements in the basal (high-frequency) end of the cochlea with preservation of neurons. In conductive hearing loss, the second most common form of hearing loss, sound is not transmitted into the inner ear. The American Hearing Research Foundation is a non-profit foundation that funds research into hearing loss and balance disorders related to the inner ear, and to educating the public about these health issues. One branch (the cochlear nerve) transmits messages from the hearing organ, while the other (the vestibular nerve) transmits messages from the balance organs.
Serous labyrinthitis is most frequently a result of chronic, untreated middle ear infections (chronic otitis media) and is characterized by subtle or mild symptoms.
In some cases, however, permanent loss of hearing can result, ranging from barely detectable to total. Usually, the brain can adapt to the altered signals resulting from labyrinthitis or neuritis in a process known as compensation. Postmeningitic hearing loss can be due to lesions of the cochlea, brainstem and higher auditory pathways, but usually is related to suppurative labyrinthitis (cochlear damage).
One in 10 Americans has a hearing loss that affects his or her ability to understand normal speech. Much research has focused on the detection of genetic causes of hearing loss, and many of them can now be diagnosed at an early age (Blanchard et al 2012, Dror & Avraham 2009, Kochhar et al 2007, Kokotas et al 2007, Robin et al 2005, Xing et al 2007).
Risk factors that correlate with hearing loss in premature infants include hypoxia, mechanical ventilation, hyperbilirubinemia, very low birth weight, and the use of ototoxic medications. These patients have symmetrical, high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (as shown in Figure 3).


Medical conditions that are common in the elderly, such as diabetes and stroke, may also increase the risk of hearing loss with aging (Bainbridge et al 2010, Helzner et al 2005, Maia & Campos 2005, Schreiber et al 2010). These conditions are relatively common in premature infants, and the majority do not go on to develop hearing deficits. Hearing loss in adults surviving pneumococcal meningitis is associated with otitis and pneumococcal serotype.
Race and sex differences in age-related hearing loss: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Positional dizziness or BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) can also be a secondary type of dizziness that develops from neuritis or labyrinthitis and may recur on its own chronically. The National Institute of Health reports that about 15 percent of Americans aged 20 to 69 have high frequency hearing loss related to occupational or leisure activities. If the loss is minor, then avoidance of noise and ototoxic medications may be an appropriate treatment. Labyrinthitis may also cause endolymphatic hydrops (abnormal fluctuations in the inner ear fluid called endolymph) to develop several years later.
Trauma is more likely to affect hearing in patients who suffer a temporal bone fracture or are older in age (Bergemalm, 2003). Because of occupational risk of noise induced hearing loss, there are government standards regulating allowable noise exposure. People working before the mid 1960s may have been exposed to higher levels of noise where there were no laws mandating use of devices to protect hearing.



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