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19.09.2014

Eating disorders and depression research, treatment for tinnitus in india - Review

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Researchers and physicians still know relatively little about what causes this depression, in spite of its having received a good bit of attention in the past several years.A study published by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers in the June 2011 issue of the Journal of Women’s Health provides some insight into the problem and might help physicians identify those women at risk and direct them to appropriate treatment in the early stages of their depression. They also noted that depression tends to be worse for women who also have eating disorders.Between 6 and 8 percent of American women are, at some time in their lives, affected by an eating disorder. In other words, the presence of an eating disorder may indicate a similar or even greater risk of perinatal depression than if the woman were depressed to begin with.The researchers noted, however, that this speculation was getting them into unfamiliar territory.
Not much is known about the eating disorders and perinatal depression, and obstetricians don’t normally screen patients for eating disorders during pregnancy or afterward.
The primary goal of the study was to examine the co-occurrence of eating disorders and perinatal depression in their sample population. The secondary goal was to look for any connection between those two disorders and a history of trauma.The Study+About 158 women who were either still pregnant or had given birth within the past 12 months and who were being treated for depression at the UNC Perinatal Psychiatry Clinic were selected.
The subjects were administered a series of questionnaires, including profiles to evaluate their degree of depression, any eating disorder problems, any history of trauma, and their overall health otherwise. About 37 percent of the women reported having had a history of eating disorders, broken down as follows:10 percent reported anorexia nervosa10 percent reported bulimia10 reported purging disorder (without binging)7 percent reported binge eatingNote that, as indicated above, only between 6 and 8 percent of women in the general population are affected by eating disorders.
At 37 percent, the sampling of women in the UNC study – all of whom were being treated for depression – were several times the normal. When the results were analyzed, the researchers found that women with bulimia had considerably more severe symptoms of depression than those with no eating disorder.
Women with anorexia and binge disorder did not.Trauma, Eating Disorders and Postpartum DepressionAmong participants of the study, there was a strong history of trauma, both physical and sexual, common across the entire sample, with nearly half of the subjects reporting either physical or sexual abuse.


Among those with eating disorders, the anorexia and bulimia sufferers reported higher rates of trauma than the non-eating-disorder group.When summarizing their results, the researchers emphasized that the connection between eating disorders and pregnancy-related depression is clear. They suggest that obstetricians and gynecologists begin to do a better job in screening their patients for eating disorders, depression and trauma history. They should also refer those patients identified as at risk to the appropriate mental health providers and dieticians.The lead author of the study was Dr.
In comments she made following the release of the study’s findings, she emphasized the consequences of a mother’s mental health disorders on the family and on the child, who is at risk to develop the same symptoms later in life. She cited “assessment and treatment” as being necessary to break the cycle of mental disorders.One of the authors of the UNC study, Stephanie Zerwas, is the director of the UNC Center of Excellence for Eating Disorders. In another study she participated in, thousands of women in Norway were selected while pregnant to be surveyed long-term in order to gauge the impact of eating disorders on them and their children. Dubbed the “Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study,” some of the results of the study so far include:Out of 50,000 women reviewed, 50 had anorexia before becoming pregnant.
However, they should be mentioned to the doctor and watched to ensure that they don’t worsen.Postpartum depression. This disorder does require treatment and is characterized by symptoms that do not pass and often become overwhelming.Postpartum psychosis.
A rare disorder, this issue usually occurs in women who struggled with schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder prior to getting pregnant and begins within the first couple of weeks after giving birth.Hazards of Pregnancy With Eating DisordersPregnant women with eating disorders are apt to experience a greater likelihood of miscarriage, more severe morning sickness, a higher incidence of preterm delivery, and a greater risk of a cesarean section. Risks to the fetus include growth retardation, premature birth, lower birth weights, reduced head circumferences, and lower Apgar scores.The results of another study, this one led by Dr.


Franko, were published under the title “Pregnancy Complications and Neonatal Outcomes in Women With Eating Disorders” in the September 1, 2001 issue of the Journal of American Psychiatry. In this study, 49 live births were studied out of a population of pregnant women diagnosed with anorexia and bulimia.
Three babies had birth defects, however, and about 35 percent of the mothers had postpartum depression.
Those women who showed symptoms of their eating disorders during pregnancy had higher rates of cesareans. The study concluded, as we have seen otherwise, that the presence of eating disorders is a predictor of postpartum depression, as well as cesarean sections.Risk Factors Associated With Postpartum DepressionGenetics may play a role in the development postpartum depression. Many can get pregnant, and the presence of an active eating disorder can greatly complicate pregnancy.
Eating disorders often do cause fertility problems, however, and women with uncontrolled eating disorders may seek fertility help. In general, once the eating disorder is under control, most women’s normal fertility will return and they will be able to conceive. For women with co-occurring depression or anxiety, this can be difficult, of course, as it is of paramount importance that mental health be protected.



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