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Different disorders that affect the cardiovascular system, ringing in ears from chemo - How to DIY

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The urinary system, also known as the renal system, produces, stores and eliminates urine, the fluid waste excreted by the kidneys. The urinary system is susceptible to a variety of infections and other problems, including blockages and injuries. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin and intestines to maintain the balance of chemicals and water in the body. The primary organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, which are bean-shaped organs that are located just below the rib cage in the middle of the back.
Muscles in the ureter walls continuously tighten and relax to force urine away from the kidneys, according to the NIH. To prevent leakage, circular muscles called sphincters close tightly around the opening of the bladder into the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur when bacteria enters the urinary tract and can affect the urethra, bladder or even the kidneys. Some common treatments involve medications, physical therapy and pelvic mesh surgery, Aguirre noted.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also called painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic bladder condition, primarily in women, that causes bladder pressure and pain and, sometimes, pelvic pain to varying degrees, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Kidney stones are clumps of calcium oxalate that can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. Kidney failure, also called renal failure and chronic kidney disease, can be a temporary (often acute) condition or can become a chronic condition resulting in the inability of the kidneys to filter waste from the blood. Bladder cancer is diagnosed in about 75,000 Americans each year and is more frequent in men and the elderly according to the American Cancer Society.

These can be treated by a urologist or another health care professional who specializes in the renal system. The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long (20 to 25 centimeters), according to the Cleveland Clinic.
It is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs and the pelvic bones, according to the Kidney & Urology Foundation of America.
The only difference between the female and male urinary system is the length of the urethra, according to Merck Manuals. Nephrologists treat kidney diseases, while urologists treat problems with the urinary tract, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder and urethra, according to the American Urological Association (AUA). It can come in the form of a pelvic prolapse, which can result in leakage and can be the result of a vaginal delivery.
Often caused by advanced age, symptoms include urinary urgency and frequency, pelvic pain and pain during urination, the Mayo Clinic noted. Kidney stones form when chemicals in the urine become concentrated enough to form a solid mass, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Other conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, can cause chronic kidney disease, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Urine travels from the kidneys through two thin tubes called ureters and fills the bladder.
Other factors in urinary system function include fluid lost through perspiring and breathing. Small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters about every 10 to 15 seconds.

The bladder stores urine until the brain signals the bladder that the person is ready to empty it.
Urologists also treat the male reproductive organs, while gynecologists often treat urinary diseases or disorders in females, including yeast infections. While the cause isn’t known, many people with the condition also have a defect in their epithelium, the protective lining of the bladder. In addition, certain types of medications, such as diuretics that are sometimes used to treat high blood pressure, can also affect the amount of urine a person produces and eliminates.
Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. In males, it runs the length of the penis, is about 8 inches (20 cm) long and opens at the end of the penis. Nephrologists and urologists often work with endocrinologists or oncologists, depending on the disease. Many kidney stones can be treated with minimally invasive therapy, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, which disintegrates the kidney stones with shock waves.

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