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10.02.2015

Depression in adults statistics, constant ringing in ears and head pressure - For You

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This report was prepared by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has been publishing National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates of the prevalence of past year serious mental illness (SMI) and any mental illness (AMI) among adults aged 18 or older since the release of the 2008 NSDUH national findings report. In 2010, there were an estimated 45.9 million adults aged 18 or older in the United States with any mental illness (AMI) in the past year. NSDUH is the primary source of statistical information on the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco by the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years or older. Several important changes were made to the adult mental health section in the 2008 NSDUH questionnaire. From 2004 to 2007, NSDUH collected data for adults aged 18 or older on lifetime and past year MDE. To address SAMHSA's need for estimates of SMI and AMI, as well as data on suicidal ideation and behavior, CBHSQ modified the NSDUH adult mental health items in 2008 to obtain these data.
Statistical tests have been conducted for all statements appearing in the text of the report that compare estimates between years or subgroups of the population. This chapter presents findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) on past year mental illness and mental health problems in the United States, including the percentage of adults aged 18 or older with any mental illness (AMI), serious mental illness (SMI), suicidal thoughts and behavior, and major depressive episode (MDE). In 2010, an estimated 45.9 million adults aged 18 or older in the United States had AMI in the past year. In 2010, there were an estimated 11.4 million adults aged 18 or older in the United States with SMI in the past year. Adults in 2010 who were unemployed in the past year were more likely than those who were employed full time to have serious thoughts of suicide (6.7 vs.
Compared with adults with private health insurance, adults with Medicaid or CHIP had higher rates of serious thoughts of suicide (6.7 vs. A NSDUH module designed to obtain measures of lifetime and past year prevalence of MDE and treatment for depression has been administered to adults aged 18 or older since 2004. Lifetime MDE is defined as having at least five or more of nine symptoms of depression in the same 2-week period in a person's lifetime, in which at least one of the symptoms was a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities.
In 2010, the percentage of adults with past year MDE was higher among women than among men (8.4 vs.
In 2010, the percentage of adults aged 18 or older receiving treatment for depression in the past year among those with MDE was significantly higher than the percentage in 2009 (68.2 vs.
In 2010, women aged 18 or older who had MDE in the past year were more likely than their male counterparts to have received treatment for depression in the past year (72.9 vs. This section presents data on the receipt of mental health services among adults aged 18 or older, the perceived unmet need for mental health services among adults, and reasons for not receiving mental health services among adults with an unmet need.
Estimates of the receipt of mental health services are presented by level of mental illness for adults.
Also described in this section are estimates of the perceived unmet need for mental health services and reasons for not receiving mental health services among adults aged 18 or older.
Among adults aged 18 or older in 2010, women were more likely than men to use mental health services in the past year (17.7 vs.
In 2010, adult women aged 18 or older were more likely than adult men to use outpatient mental health services (8.3 vs. Among adults aged 18 or older in 2010 who used past year outpatient mental health services, several types of locations were reported where services were received. Among adults aged 18 or older, receipt of prescription medication for mental health problems varied by level of mental illness in the past year. Among the 5.2 million adults aged 18 or older who reported an unmet need for mental health care and did not receive mental health services in the past year, several reasons were reported for not receiving mental health care. This chapter presents findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) on past year major depressive episode (MDE), MDE accompanied by severe impairment in one or more role domains, and the percentage receiving treatment for depression among youths aged 12 to 17 in the United States.
Note: Respondents with an unknown level of impairment were included in the estimates for Major Depressive Episode without Severe Impairment. The use of cigarettes in the past month was more likely among adults aged 18 or older with AMI compared with adults who did not have mental illness (36.7 vs. Adults aged 18 or older with AMI in the past year were more likely than adults who did not have mental illness to be heavy alcohol users in the past month (9.3 vs.
Adults aged 18 or older with SMI were more than twice as likely as those who did not have mental illness in the past year to be past month cigarette users (44.5 vs.
Adults aged 18 or older in 2010 with SMI in the past year were more likely than those without mental illness to be past month binge alcohol users (28.4 vs. In any 2-week period, 5.4% of Americans 12 years of age and older experienced depression.
Approximately 80% of persons with depression reported some level of functional impairment because of their depression, and 27% reported serious difficulties in work and home life.
Only 29% of all persons with depression reported contacting a mental health professional in the past year, and among the subset with severe depression, only 39% reported contact.


Non-Hispanic black persons had higher rates of depression than non-Hispanic white persons.
In the 18-39 and 40-59 age groups, those with income below the federal poverty level had higher rates of depression than those with higher income.
Among persons 12-17 and 60 years of age and older, rates of depression did not vary significantly by poverty status. Overall, approximately 80% of persons with depression reported some level of difficulty in functioning because of their depressive symptoms. In addition, 35% of males and 22% of females with depression reported that their depressive symptoms made it very or extremely difficult for them to work, get things done at home, or get along with other people. More than one-half of all persons with mild depressive symptoms also reported some difficulty in daily functioning attributable to their symptoms. Among all people with depression - those with moderate or severe symptoms - 29% reported contact with a mental health professional. Among those with severe depression, only 39% reported contact with a mental health professional. Major depression is a clinical syndrome of at least five symptoms that cluster together, last for at least 2 weeks, and cause impairment in functioning. Depression was measured in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a nine-item screening instrument that asks questions about the frequency of symptoms of depression over the past 2 weeks (11). It is possible that severely depressed persons disproportionately chose not to participate in the survey or health examination, which included administration of the PHQ-9; therefore, the prevalence estimates in this report may slightly underestimate the actual prevalence of depression. Depression severity was defined by various cut points from the total score from the PHQ-9 screening instrument (11). The data do not indicate whether persons who contacted a mental health professional actually began treatment for depression. Laura Pratt is with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology. This report presents national estimates of the prevalence of past year mental disorders and past year mental health service utilization for youths aged 12 to 17 and adults aged 18 or older.
An adjustment was applied to estimates of MDE that were affected by the questionnaire changes in 2008 to allow trends in MDE among adults for 2005 to 2010 to be included in this report. Unless explicitly stated that a difference is not statistically significant, all statements that describe differences are significant at the .05 level.
In addition, this chapter includes estimates of the percentages of adults who received treatment for mental health problems in the past year overall and among those with AMI, SMI, and MDE. Adults who had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder in the past year, regardless of their level of functional impairment, were defined as having AMI.
102-321, the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Reorganization Act of 1992, established a block grant for States within the United States to fund community mental health services for adults with SMI.
These questions ask all adult respondents if at any time during the past 12 months they had serious thoughts of suicide, and among those with suicidal ideation, whether they made suicide plans or attempts in the past year.
Some questions in the adult depression module differ slightly from questions in the adolescent depression module. The relevant mental health service utilization questions are asked of adult respondents regardless of mental illness status. Although less likely than for adults with SMI, a similar pattern of mental health service use by age group was evident among adults with moderate mental illness and low (mild) mental illness. These included 5.2 million adults who did not receive any mental health services in the past year.
As described in the next paragraph, some questions in the adolescent depression module differ slightly from questions in the adult depression module to make them more appropriate for youths.
It should be noted that unlike the DSM-IV criteria for MDE, no exclusions were made in NSDUH for depressive symptoms caused by medical illness, bereavement, or substance use disorders.
It is treatable, but the majority of persons with depression do not receive even minimally adequate treatment (1).
People have an episode of depression, get well, and may or may not have another episode later in their life. Successful depression treatment enables people to return to the level of functioning they had before becoming depressed. In addition, people who were being successfully treated for depression would not be identified as depressed by the PHQ-9. A test for trend was done to evaluate estimates of contact with a mental health professional by depression severity.
Debra Brody is with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Clinical and health services relationships between major depression, depressive symptoms and general medical illness.
Depression, disability days, and days lost from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey.


Minor depression in family practice: Functional morbidity, co-morbidity, service utilization and outcomes. Among adults, estimates presented include rates and numbers of persons with any mental illness (AMI), serious mental illness (SMI), suicidal thoughts and behavior, major depressive episode (MDE), treatment for depression (among adults with MDE), and mental health service utilization. The chapter also presents data on the percentage of adults who had a perceived unmet need for mental health services in the past year. Therefore, the MDE data for adults aged 18 or older should not be compared or combined with MDE data for youths aged 12 to 17. It should be noted that, unlike the DSM-IV criteria for MDE, no exclusions were made in NSDUH for depressive symptoms caused by medical illness, bereavement, or substance use disorders. Therefore, these data should not be compared or combined with MDE data for adults aged 18 or older.
The mental health service utilization questions for youths aged 12 to 17 are different from those asked of adults aged 18 or older. Also, the utilization of substance use and mental health services among adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use is discussed. Depression is characterized by changes in mood, self-attitude, cognitive functioning, sleep, appetite, and energy level (2). In 2005-2006, in any 2-week period, 5.4% of Americans 12 years of age and older had depression. Persons living in institutions, where rates of depression are higher than in the community-dwelling population, are not included in NHANES.
This revised model incorporates the NSDUH respondent's age and indicators of past year suicide thoughts and depression, along with the variables that were specified in the 2008 model (Kessler-6 [K6] questions on psychological distress and an abbreviated set of questions on impairment in carrying out activities from the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS]), leading to more accurate estimates of SMI and AMI.
Estimates presented in this report for youths include MDE, treatment for depression (among youths with MDE), and mental health service utilization.
In addition, a Mental Health Surveillance Study (MHSS) was initiated in which a subsample of adults (about 1,500 in 2008 and 500 each in 2009 and 2010) who had completed the NSDUH interview was administered a standard clinical interview by mental health clinicians via paper and pencil over the telephone to determine their mental illness status. Questionnaire changes in 2008 did not affect comparability of estimates based on adult mental health service utilization questions; therefore, estimates of mental health service utilization presented in this report reflect trends from 2002 to 2010. When a set of estimates for survey years or population subgroups is presented without a statement of comparison, statistically significant differences among these estimates are not implied and testing may not have been conducted.
Treatment for MDE in adults is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication for depression in the past year. The World Health Organization found that major depression was the leading cause of disability worldwide (3).
Females, people 40-59 years of age, non-Hispanic black persons, and people living below the poverty level had higher rates of depression than their respective counterparts.
Depression was defined as a PHQ-9 score of 10 or higher, a cut point that has been well validated and is commonly used in clinical studies that measure depression (11). All comparisons reported in the text are statistically significant unless otherwise indicated. Measures related to the co-occurrence of mental disorders with substance use or with substance use disorders also are presented for both adults and youths. Department of Health and Human Services, and is planned and managed by SAMHSA's Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ, formerly the Office of Applied Studies, OAS).
Using both clinical interview and computer-assisted interview data for the respondents who completed the clinical interview, statistical models were developed that then were applied to data from adult respondents who had not completed the clinical interviews to produce estimates of mental illness among the adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Treatment for MDE among youths is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication for depression in the past year.
There were no statistically significant gender differences in the use of inpatient specialty mental health services.
Depression causes suffering, decreases quality of life, and causes impairment in social and occupational functioning (4). Depression is a condition that causes impairment in many areas of functioning - including school, work, family, and social life.
Depression is a major public health problem, and increasing the number of Americans with depression who receive treatment is an important public health goal and a national objective of Healthy People 2010 (10). Estimates from the expanded adult mental health questions for 2009 and 2010 (including those for AMI, SMI, and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts) are included in Chapters 2 and 4 of this report. Studies have shown that a high number of depressive symptoms are associated with poor health and impaired functioning, whether or not the criteria for a diagnosis of major depression are met (6,7). In 2005-2006, black and Mexican-American persons, adults 60 years and older, and low income persons were oversampled to improve the statistical reliability of the estimates for these groups.
Other mental health measures in this report, such as major depressive episode (MDE) and serious thoughts of suicide, were not affected.



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