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26.08.2014

Define depression psychology, test anxiety sleeplessness - How to DIY

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As many as 5 percent, or one in 20, of children and adolescents experience a potentially disabling depression before age 19. Less frequently seen in children (or adults, in whom the annual prevalence is about 1 percent) is bipolar depression, a phase of manic depressive, or bipolar, disorder, in which periods of depression alternate with periods of unnaturally high levels of energy and grandiosity.
Depression may – and frequently does – occur when no member of a family has knowingly experienced a serious mental disorder. What can be said with surety is that in children no less than in adults, clinical depression is not a character weakness, normal sadness, or a passing phase. A recent down-turn in rates of adolescent suicide may reflect increasing widespread use of safer and more effective medications to treat depression. Treatments for depression are well-defined and effective for the vast majority of those with the illness. Two specific forms of therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and interpersonal therapy, have now have been validated by research to be effective in treating depression in youth.
Antidepressant medications target chemical imbalances in the brain that are associated with depression.


This frequency of occurrence, or prevalence, of depression at young ages – and the fact that fewer than half of those who have the illness receive appropriate treatment – helps explain why depression is now the leading cause of disability among adults in the U.S. Major depression is characterized by specific signs and symptoms; suffering at least five of these symptoms for two weeks or more is a highly reliable marker of depression.
Behavioral problems and mental disorders – for example, conduct, attention-deficit, learning, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders — frequently co-occur with depression and may help explain its onset. Teachers, or a pediatrician or other health care provider, often are the first to put a name to the changes in a child’s behavior that are seen with depression.
But research has shown that they do, suffering many of the same symptoms that are seen in adults with a major depression, but also some that are unique to their age.
In dysthymia, symptoms generally are less severe, but the illness is marked by a more chronic and persistent course; rather than shifting episodically into well-defined periods of depression, the child with dysthymia lives in world tinted a joyless gray.
The genes that we inherit, and which continue to be influenced by experience throughout life, may predispose a person to the illness, but this predisposition, or vulnerability, to depression typically is “triggered” by life events.
A family history of depression or bipolar disorder is a significant risk factor for depression in a child or young adult.


Your child’s doctor can rule out the presence of general medical illnesses that might present with some depressive symptoms and, in some instances, may be willing and capable of treating depression. While different types of therapies tend to be offered in various communities, research has shown that “here and now” approaches that concentrate on solving problems (rather than on gaining insight into psychological processes) are preferable. Recent studies indicate that these medications can be useful in treating youth depression as well. Additional studies are ongoing in order to further define the efficacy of these medications in children and adolescents. The warning emphasizes that children, adolescents and young adults taking antidepressants should be closely monitored, especially during the initial weeks of treatment, for any worsening depression, suicidal thinking or behavior, or any unusual changes in behavior such as sleeplessness, agitation, or withdrawal from normal social situations.
The publication of this information does not constitute the practice of medicine or psychology, and this information does not replace the advice of your physician or mental health care provider.



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