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Medical history, your current and past these abnormalities include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hyperlipidemia because of the multifactorial nature.

25.01.2014

Cancer fatigue, 20 common drugs that can cause tinnitus - Within Minutes

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Fatigue is sometimes referred to as asthenia, tiredness, lack of energy, weakness, and exhaustion. The causes of fatigue in an individual patient are often multiple, with many interrelated factors. In patients without cancer who present with fatigue, the final diagnosis is psychological (eg, depression, anxiety, and other psychological disorders) in almost 75% of patients.
Low red blood cell count related to advanced cancer or chemotherapy has been associated with fatigue, and its treatment results in improvement of fatigue and quality of life in these patients. Administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancy causes a specific fatigue syndrome.
Comorbid conditions not necessarily related to cancer, such as renal failure and congestive heart failure, may coexist and contribute to the problem. The fourth category in Table 1 is the most relevant for both clinical management and clinical trials in fatigue. In addition to the assessment of the intensity of fatigue, the clinical assessment of these patients requires clinicians to determine the impact of all factors on the presence of fatigue. To treat fatigue optimally, it is vital to identify and prioritize the different underlying factors in the individual patient. In patients with cancer treatment–related fatigue, it is important to exclude specific causes, such as hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and anemia, and to consider other potential adverse effects of treatment. Psychosocial interventions, such as CBT, have been found to be effective in improving cancer-related fatigue in cancer patients receiving treatment. Cancer-related fatigue is a common side effect during cancer treatment, and research demonstrates that it is a troubling, lingering side effect for many long-term survivors. Fatigue that lingers long into survivorship affects quality of life, mood, and work productivity.[4,5] A patient’s fatigue level at time of diagnosis may increase risk for fatigue problems after completion of treatment. Hypokinesia has been examined in exercise studies that consistently demonstrate that regular, moderate exercise improves aerobic capacity and muscle strength and decreases fatigue. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) 2009 Practice Guidelines for Cancer-Related Fatigue include a treatment and intervention algorithm for long-term survivors.[11] After ruling out treatable contributing factors such as pain, emotional disorders, anemia, sleep disturbances, and medication side effects, the guidelines specify strategies for fatigue management. Typically the causes of CRF have generally been poorly understood while research lags far behind research activities on other cancer-related topics. Though fatigue has not been typically regarded as a risk factor for cancer relapse, one study had identified fatigue, as part of a biological model, as a significant predictor of recurrence-free survival in breast cancer patients while emotional function remained a significant predictor of overall survival [3]. Fatigue is also commonly associated with cancer treatment and occurs in up to 90% of patients undergoing chemotherapy.
It may be present early in the course of the illness, may be exacerbated by treatments, and is present in almost all patients with advanced cancer.
In terminally ill patients with advanced cancer, treatment of anemia may not resolve fatigue adequately because of the multifactorial nature of its etiology. Autonomic failure has also been documented in patients with severe chronic fatigue syndrome.
The pattern of fatigue reported by patients with cancer who receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy is cyclical. Combined therapy with the two modalities appears to cause worse fatigue than does either modality given alone. In addition, commonly used medications, such as opioids and hypnotics, may cause sedation and fatigue.
Other conditions include the chronic stress response (possibly mediated through the hypothalamic-pituitary axis), disrupted sleep or circadian rhythms, and hormonal changes (eg, premature menopause and androgen blockade secondary to cancer treatment).
There is agreement that self-assessment should be the “gold standard.” Because of the complex nature of the symptoms of fatigue, an effort to identify a set of diagnostic criteria similar to those for depression has been attempted.
Visual analog scales, numerical scales, the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and the Piper Fatigue Self-Report Scale have been validated. There is substantial evidence that corticosteroids can reduce fatigue and other symptoms in cancer patients.


Psychostimulants (eg, methylphenidate, 5 to 10 mg in the morning and at noon or 5 mg as needed) may be useful in treating fatigue in patients with advanced cancer. Based on a preliminary study that found significant improvement of cancer-related fatigue with a dose of 2,000 mg extract of ground root of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Barton et al recently completed a double-blind trial of 2,000 mg of American ginseng vs placebo for 8 weeks in 364 fatigued cancer survivors.
When appropriate in patients with advanced cancer, physical therapy may encourage increased activity and provide active range of motion to prevent painful tendon retraction. A recent controlled trial by Chandwani and Cohen et al assessed 163 breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy who were randomized to a yoga group, a stretching group, or a waitlist group. A recent randomized controlled trial by Montogomery et al found that the benefits of CBT on cancer-related fatigue lasted long after the CBT was finished. Factors that contribute to severe fatigue in survivors include low levels of physical activity, depressed mood, impaired sleep and rest, and feelings of fatigue for as long as 1 year prior to diagnosis.[6] Some physiologic factors may also influence fatigue after completion of treatment. Basically, as one gets physically stronger, it is easier to perform desirable activities without becoming fatigued. Though specific measures to assess fatigue in long-term survivors have not been developed, scales that measure fatigue during treatment appear to be psychometrically sound in the long-term survivor setting. Cancer-related fatigue is a highly prevalent condition in cancer patients at all stages [1,2].
Of 379 patients with a prior history with chemotherapy, seventy-six percent of patients experienced fatigue at least a few days each month during their most recent chemotherapy; 30% experienced fatigue on a daily basis [4]. Titled “The experience of cancer-related fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a qualitative and comparative study,” this study aimed to better understand the manifestations of CRF in women treated for breast cancer and to compare them with those of women diagnosed with CFS. Moreover, different studies of fatigue and asthenia have looked at different outcomes, ranging from physical performance to the purely subjective sensation. When injected into a rested subject, blood from a fatigued subject has produced manifestations of fatigue.
The metabolic abnormalities involved in the production of cachexia and the loss of muscle mass resulting from progressive cachexia may cause profound weakness and fatigue. It should also be considered in younger cancer patients who are undergoing aggressive antineoplastic treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy and who are nevertheless trying to maintain their social and professional activities.
Although the association between fatigue and autonomic dysfunction has not been established in cancer patients, it should be suspected in patients with severe postural hypotension or other signs of autonomic failure. Fatigue has been noted to decrease in the first 2 weeks after localized treatment for breast cancer but then to increase as radiation therapy persists into week 4. This syndromal approach has been useful to assess the presence or absence of the clinical syndrome of fatigue. These functional tasks have limited value in cancer care, however, since they are very difficult for the advanced cancer patient to perform. In a study by Bruera et al, 141 advanced cancer patients were evaluated for a period of 15 days so as to compare the effects of methylphenidate and placebo. While all of these hypotheses are plausible, only the correction of anemia and hypokinesia (debilitation from physical disuse) have demonstrated a clear correlation with fatigue. The most efficient and relevant clinical measure of fatigue continues to be a 10-point scale (ie, 0-to-10 scale), which is easy to administer and is easily understood by patients.[7] Moderate to severe fatigue scores (4–10 on a 10-point scale) warrant further evaluation of underlying disease. Ninety-one percent of those who experienced fatigue reported that it prevented a “normal” life, and 88% indicated that fatigue caused an alteration in their daily routine. The results revealed a similar core set of symptoms featuring fatigue, neurocognitive difficulties and mood disturbances. In most patients, the etiology of fatigue or dyspnea is multifactorial, with many contributing interrelated abnormalities. The host production of cytokines in response to the tumor can also have a direct fatigue-inducing effect.
However, many abnormalities described in Figure 1 are capable of causing profound fatigue in the absence of significant weight loss. Patients with an adjustment disorder or a major depressive disorder can have fatigue as their most prevalent symptom.


Fatigue tends to worsen with subsequent cycles of chemotherapy, which suggests a cumulative dose-related toxic effect. As clinicians, it is important to look for other treatable and reversible common causes of fatigue, including anemia, depression, anxiety, and hypothyroidism. Fatigue made it more difficult to participate in social activities and perform typical cognitive tasks. TRH administration was associated with significant improvement in fatigue level and was associated with a positive impact on QoL! In one study of patients with advanced cancer, fatigue was found to be significantly correlated with the intensity of dyspnea.
Muscular or neuromuscular junction abnormalities are a possible cause of chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced fatigue.
Compared with women who have no history of cancer, former patients with breast cancer who had received adjuvant chemotherapy reported more fatigue and worse quality of life due to this symptom. It is impossible to be certain whether one of these identified problems is a major contributor to fatigue or simply a coexisting problem in a given patient.
The results of this study showed that there was no significant improvement in fatigue in the methylphenidate group compared with the placebo group. Of the 177 patients who were employed, 75% changed their employment status as a result of fatigue.
This chapter will discuss the mechanisms, clinical features, assessment, and management of both of these troublesome and often undertreated symptoms in cancer patients. Similar results have been noted in breast cancer patients who have been treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support and in patients treated for lymphoma.
Therefore, it is of great importance to measure the intensity of fatigue and the patient’s performance before and after treating any contributing factor. In a recent double-blind placebo controlled study of 84 advanced cancer patients with fatigue, oral dexamethasone at a standard dose of 8 mg daily for 2 weeks was associated with significant improvement in cancer-related fatigue. There was also no significant benefit from methylphenidate plus a nursing telephone intervention on cancer-related fatigue.
Counseling (more specifically, cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT]) for stress management, depression, and anxiety may reduce distress and fatigue as well as improve mood. Furthermore, 65% of patients indicated that their fatigue resulted in their caregivers taking at least one day (mean, 4.5 days) off work in a typical month. If the level of fatigue does not improve after correction of these abnormalities, it is clear then that further treatment will not result in improvement in the future. A 148-patient study by Moraska et al also found no significant improvement in cancer-related fatigue with long-acting methylphenidate compared with placebo. Physicians were the health care professionals most commonly consulted (79%) to discuss fatigue. In a recent study by Spathis et al, 160 patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer were randomized to modafinil or placebo for 28 days. Similar to the previous studies of Bruera et al and Moraska et al, fatigue improved among patients treated with modafinil but there was no significant difference between the active and placebo treatments.
The conclusion from this study was that “CRF is common among cancer patients who have received chemotherapy and results in substantial adverse physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences for both patients and caregivers. Based on these results, future studies of psychostimulants should be focused on a specific patient group, such as fatigued patients with depression or drowsiness.



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