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19.04.2014

Adhd causes and treatments, whistle in ear when blow nose - .

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Increasingly, researchers are studying ADHD in the context of executive functions—the brain functions that activate, organize, integrate, and manage other functions.
In instances where heredity does not seem to be a factor, difficulties during pregnancy, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, premature delivery, significantly low birth weight, excessively high body lead levels, and postnatal injury to the prefrontal regions of the brain have all been found to contribute to the risk for ADHD to varying degrees. Current diagnostic criteria indicate that the disorder is marked by behaviors that are long-lasting and evident for at least six months, with onset before age seven. In adults, the symptoms must be present since childhood and affect the person’s ability to function in daily life.
Impairment of these executive functions is considered highly interrelated to symptoms associated with ADHD. Although precise causes have not yet been identified, there is little question that heredity makes the largest contribution to the expression of the disorder in the population. Because everyone shows signs of these behaviors at one time or another, the guidelines for determining whether a person has ADHD are very specific.
For both children and adults, these symptoms must create significant difficulty in at least two areas of life, such as home, social settings, school, or work.
If not detected and treated properly it can significantly disrupt social, professional or school life.CausesExact pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown, but recent research has revealed that it is most likely a genetic TDHA (researchers are concerned with identifying genes that predispose to the development TDHA). You may also contact us by phone (800-233-4050) or use our Online Form (select "Questions about ADHD") and a health information specialist will provide a personalized response. Brain imaging studies have provided evidence of the existence of changes in the brain, which supports the theory that ADHD is a neurobiological disorder.
The nutritional theory, according to which increased consumption of sugar or food additives (colorings and preservatives) may be responsible for the appearance of hyperactivity, was not supported by experimental data.
Other studies show that there is no correlation between sugar consumption and TDHA.Risk FactorsResearch has shown that ADHD is transmitted genetically from parents to children. For the propensity to lead to the appearance ADHD, genetic factors must be correlated with environmental factors (psychosocial), so called biopsychosocial context. Symptoms become apparent or increased with the beginning of school, because the social and academic environment require those skills in children with ADHD which are not their strengths. During this period (6-12 years) expectations of the adults (parents and teachers) are becoming larger in terms of independence, autonomy and social functioning. Many adults can get away undiagnosed and untreated and may present problems of social maladjustment (difficulty keeping a job) or affective disorders (depression). Most adults with ADHD will have problems in both family and workplace, will often present a low self-esteem and frustration. Parents will watch carefully their child’s behavior and will learn to respond appropriately to desirable behaviors.


If other malfunctions occur in family life (such as divorce, family violence, alcohol and drugs), they will interfere with the behavior management of children with ADHD.
Comorbidity with other mental disorders There is ample evidence that shows that ADHD is often associated with one or more mental disorders such as dyslexia, challenging oppositional disorder, conduct disorder, mood disorders (depression) and anxiety disorders.
These problems are noticed by parents and teachers with the entry into first grade primary - When a child shows signs of mental disorders like depression and anxiety that lasts for weeks or symptoms worsen later on - When a child presents school failure and behavior problems.Watchful expectativeDuring the first 5 years of life Watchful expectative is the best attitude to this age group (under 5 years) as the limit of normal behavior and symptoms of ADHD is very difficult to establish. If parents have observed undesirable behaviors and if after a period of six months they have tried to modify the child’s behavioral problems and have not managed to improve or resolve them, especially if they lead to expulsion from the nursery or kindergarten child, they will have to address a behavioral specialist for evaluation and treatment. Adults with hyperactivity will try to remember when they started ADHD symptoms, to analyze in the context of major changes occurred and to assess whether disorder symptoms have affected decisions in crisis situations in life. Once the problems were identified, they will be managed and resolved, but if the symptoms cause discomfort, adults with ADHD will require expert advice. Scientists and researchers in the field believe the number of cases of ADHD is not due to the overdiagnosis but to the improvement of the evaluation and diagnosis methods (the emergence of standardized scales). Behavioral assessment of adults with ADHD can be done with WURS Scale (Wender Utah Rating Scale) which consists of 25 questions (items) about childhood problems commonly found in this condition. This scale assesses the presence and severity of symptoms in childhood.Early diagnosisIt is not recommended to screen the entire population of children in order to make early diagnosis of ADHD. Children receiving stimulating medication showed a significant improvement in symptoms (inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity were significantly improved). American Psychiatric Association also recommends for treating ADHD behavioral therapy, which is a specific set of interventions through which parents and teachers learn behavioral techniques, such as the reinforcements that modify the child’s undesirable behavior. Children develop problem – solving skills, communication skills and self-affirmation abilities. Psychological counseling for children with ADHD and adults in his family is very useful in identifying symptoms due to hyperactivity and behavior problems and in finding their solution strategies. In the case of a preschool child behavior therapy is preferred in an attempt to keep control of behavior and avoid medication at an early age. Maintenance treatmentThe most effective way of intervention in ADHD is multidisciplinary approach: medical, psychological and educational, in which are involved parents, teachers, psychologist and doctors specialised in child and teenager psychiatry. Parents will have to be careful that the misuse of stimulant medications by adolescents does not lead to psychological and physical addiction to amphetamines or other drugs.
A study that followed over 4 years in children and adolescents with ADHD showed that the incidence of alcoholism and drug abuse is lower in those taking psycho stimulant medications.
The teenagers’ inability to cope with school tasks and their difficulty in paying and maintaining attention are symptoms that deserve a special approach.
Rewards systems of interest to teens will be used, parents will work with children in acceptable targets and will negotiate with them to achieve appropriate reward goal.Treatment of ADHD in adultsFor the treatment of ADHD in adulthood combined drug therapy and psychotherapy can be relied on.


Psychological counseling includes: - Learning about ADHD, attending support groups or individual counseling and skills development. In skill development sessions they are taught a good time management, organizational techniques while the sessions also include academic and vocational counseling.
Parents and adults who take care of children and adolescents with ADHD will be vigilant for warning signs of suicide risk, without being, however, required to stop medication.
They have to fight with myths and misconceptions about the disease; ADHD is a medical problem that cannot be controlled in the absence of drug treatment.
Parents should give children as much information about ADHD and to explain the importance of respecting the therapeutic strategy. Effective treatment will consist in a greater involvement of the child in the management of his symptoms (eg to take his medication on time). Nutritional therapy (restriction of sugar, fish oil etc) is a therapeutic method recommended because these diets have no clinical support at their core.ProphylaxisThere are no ways to prevent ADHD. You should avoid smoking, alcohol or drugs during pregnancy, not only as a prophylactic measure to ADHD but also to other health problems of the future child.
Some useful tips for moms to reduce the risk of learning problems and attention of their children: - A careful medical supervise of pregnant women and promotion of healthy behaviors during pregnancy - A school for the parents, through which they achieve good parenting skills - Maximize the learning skills and training attention, adequate stimulation in preschool (fathers should read stories and play puzzle with the child). In addition, parenting techniques right from birth and continuing throughout childhood are essential to optimal development.Home treatmentADHD treatment practices are focused on symptom management.
Therapeutic process in children is different from that of adults, but all at ages the focus is on a better understanding of the disease, the establishment of daily routines and the achievement of full support from others. Children with ADHD experience difficulty learning a behavior by observing another person and must learn to interact with others by being explained the behavioral sequence and the negative impact of problematic behaviors. Hyperkinetic children cannot follow the instructions in performing a task and attention will be easily distracted by external stimuli. Training programs are focused on creating a structured environment of a daily routine, a set of rules of conduct and a careful and rigorous monitoring of the progress made. Using behavioral techniques, such as the reward system, aim at strengthening desirable behaviors, compliance and reducing inappropriate behavior.
The effectiveness of these methods is much higher than cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, which require emotional and behavioral self. Children with ADHD do not have the necessary skills or modifying dysfunctional cognitive pattern of negative emotions, and therefore require consistent and constant support of parents and teachers.



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