The ultimate source of all encouragement is the fact that God is love, and He loves us and has a perfect plan for us. The third phase of the judgment will take place on the earth at the close of the 1,000 years of Revelation chapter 20--after Jesus' return to earth with the holy city. 12.   God promises to acquit you in the heavenly judgment if you will invite Him to enter your life and permit Him to remain in control. In Study Guide 2, we learned how Satan falsely accused and challenged God and brought the ugly malignancy of sin into the universe. A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia. In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe.
According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business. They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East. An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe.
Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans.
The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan.
Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East.
A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns. New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration.
The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained. And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory. Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased.
The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo.
Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors.
The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexander’s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henry’s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the world’s largest and most powerful navy. One of Elizabeth’s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia.
One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabeth’s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australia’s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established. Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies. The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524. In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France.
By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Years’ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War.
The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean.
After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation.
After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs.
Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or “Cathay” (the 15th century name for China). Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established.
The “B” people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled “X,” has been identified, and “X” is not found anywhere in Asia!
Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia. A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe. If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts. The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term “Indian.” The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures.
And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas.
There were no existing university courses or books available on “how to best contact a foreign culture” or “how to best evangelize another people.” Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language.
The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa Maria and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there. Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldn’t stand inside his cabin on the Santa Maria. The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
His son Ferdinand wrote, “He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.” He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages. But only in the last 40 years—and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbus’s religious motivations. On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain they’d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people “as naked as their mother bore them” and many ponds, fruits, and green trees.
Las Casas agreed that “Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territories” and many peoples “are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.” As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross.
After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem.
But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: “It was a great blessing and the express purpose of God” that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men.
Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbus’s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula. When Columbus anchored the Nina in Palos, seven months after he’d left, shops closed and church bells rang.
According to Las Casas, “The King and Queen heard [Columbus’s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God.
Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were God’s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control.
As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christ’s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem.
But much to Columbus’s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken. In 1499, he said, “When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration].
In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions.
Several weeks later Magellan’s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth.
Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America. Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire.
The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain.
De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City.
He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river.
Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or “hicks” by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines.
Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force.
The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash.
Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spain’s Ecomienda.
De Soto’s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas). From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America.
The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the “Little Ice Age” that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia.
In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves.
As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery! For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate. The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas. By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain. Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade.
The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible.
The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands. Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa.
Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World.
Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries.
Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands.
Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ.
The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline.
Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship.
Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed.
Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean. Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life.
What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands. Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed.


The first phase of the judgment is called the pre-advent judgment because it takes place before Jesus' second coming. For this reason, this first phase of the judgment is also called the investigative judgment.
God and His manner of handling the sin problem will be gloriously vindicated before the entire universe. When I accept Him as Saviour, He saves me from the guilt and penalty of sin and gives me the new birth.
The Lord's goat, which was sacrificed on the day of atonement, represents Jesus, who assumed and paid for our sins on Calvary.
It is also clear that, though forgiven, the record of these sins remains on heaven's books until the end of time (Acts 3:19-21).
The heavenly judgment is not complete until the judgment of the wicked takes place—immediately prior to their destruction at the end of the world. To make it possible for us to be certain regarding the timing for the judgment, God clearly specified it three times in Daniel chapter 7. The day of atonement in ancient Israel taught, through symbols, how God will handle the sin problem and bring harmony back to the universe by the atonement.
Venice grew to become one of Europe’s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty).
They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf.
They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to “get there before the Muslims do” motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers. Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East.
They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexander’s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexander’s solution.
Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish.
Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents. By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves. They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China. Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings.
Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes.
Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance.
He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants. At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean.
Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia. The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain. The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islands’ inhabitants as “Indians.” However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of “the Khan” (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor).
We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The “B” DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon.
Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific.
And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europe’s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast.
In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbus’ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland. Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: “Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind. In 1501 Columbus wrote, “I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences.
The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the ship’s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank. Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags. As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, “I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts. So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes “Indians.” The name, though flatly wrong, stuck.
They had coarse black hair—“almost like the tail of a horse”—with “handsome bodies and good faces” painted with black, red, or white paint.
In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy. Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumber—lots of it—for building the necessary fort. On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world.
Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.” For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustine’s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven ages—and he was in the sixth, the next to last. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade.
He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans.
In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, “a millionaire by any standard.” But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crown—hereditary titles and “the tenth part of the whole” of gold he found—that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel.
Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasn’t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse.
It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men.
They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific.
In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold. They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business.
They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom. From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah. In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain.
In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first.
There are many types and forms, but basically a covenant is an agreement between two parties based upon mutual promises. Although many other covenants have been established through the years, the simple provision of salvation through faith has remained in effect through all ages, for all mankind. He also describes the institution of a new covenant which has some very important advantages over the old. It is just as important to understand what the Old Covenant was not, as to know what it was. In spite of their repeated assurances, they miserably broke their word before Moses could even get off the mountain with the tables of stone. Because God made them, and they guaranteed successful obedience through His strength alone. In other words, because of Jesus' sinless life in the flesh, the requirement of the law can be fulfilled in us. Those great spiritual principles reflect the very character of God, and form the basis for His government.
I had just finished preaching on the subject of the Sabbath in one of my evangelistic crusades. It was obvious that I would have to take the time to answer this trio's challenging question. Anyway, they had my path completely blocked, and the circle of listeners looked at me expectantly for some explanation. They responded eagerly to the invitation, and read the verses, commenting on each one after reading. It is certainly true that Christ arose on the first day of the week, but nowhere in the Bible are we commanded to keep that day holy. If Christ had desired His resurrection to be memori- alized by Sundaykeeping, He could have introduced it on that same Thursday night of the Last Supper.
Many have been confused over the allegory Paul used to illustrate the Old and New Covenants. He plainly shows that Hagar's son, Ishmael, symbolizes the Old Covenant, and Sarah's son, Isaac, is a type of the New Covenant.
The old arrangement failed just as surely as the Old Covenant promises failed, because there was no dependence on divine power.
Those who are under the Old Covenant are the commandment breakers, and those under the New Covenant are the commandment keepers. Just as the saints of old could have received true circumcision by accepting spiritual regeneration, we may fall back under the Old Covenant by trusting the flesh to save us.
At the close of the 1,000 years, the wicked dead of all ages will be raised (Revelation 20:5).
Every lost soul since the world began, including Satan and his angels, now faces God in judgment. If God destroyed the records before this final phase of the judgment, He could be accused of a massive cover-up. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East.
Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China.
It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain. European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia.
Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans. Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates. Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants.
This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia. Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line.
Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed.
The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium.
In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec. In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson.
Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D.
So, there was evident confusion on Columbus’ part about where his ships had actually landed. Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge.
It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic. Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt Cristobal Colon, captain general of three small ships anchored in the town’s inlet below. Their mission—the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captain—was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks. There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble. He boasted later in life, “I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.” He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient.
He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his life—and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.” He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa Maria de La Rabida. A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right.
Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for “Ferdinand” and “Isabella.” Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost. They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it.


Columbus had used the port of Palos, in fact, because the larger Cadiz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees. The Crusaders’ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him “to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faith” and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage.
As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled.
Then the Lord came to help, saying, ‘O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.’ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises. The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church. Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea.
The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer. Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans.
The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents.
Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch.
Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. If so, we certainly need to be clearly apprised of the doctrine in order to avoid the pitfall of deadly legalism. It was a covenant between the Father and the Son and had to do with the eventuality of sin. Naturally, we are interested to know all about that new covenant which will place God's law in the heart and mind. Right now, let us look at three absolute proofs that the covenant which disappeared was not the Ten Commandments. It becomes more and more apparent that the Old Covenant could not have been the Ten Commandments.
Very clearly, then, we can see that the covenant which came to an end could not have been the Ten Commandments.
He overcame sin in the same kind of body we have, so that He could impart that victory to us. Eternal promises rooted in the changeless nature of God would provide power to overcome every inherited and cultivated weakness. On the Thursday night before His agonizing death on Friday, Jesus met with His disciples in that upper room.
As I stepped off the platform to greet the people as they left, three young men blocked my way in the aisle. As I suspected they turned out to be young seminarians in training at a local Bible college.
It was added much, much later as a result of the gradual apostasy which developed in the early centuries of the church and which culminated in the pagan accommodation of Constantine in 330 A.D. Events such as the crucifixion and resurrection should mean much to every Christian, but not one intimation is given in the Bible for observing either Friday or Sunday.
Then it would have become a part of the New Covenant, along with the Communion service and foot-washing. It was only when Abraham disobeyed God by taking Hagar that he fulfilled the principle of the Old Covenant. It is not cutting off the physical flesh, but cutting off the fleshly nature of sin through the indwelling of Christ. The doctrine of the covenants establishes beyond any doubt that the law is just as important under the New as under the Old. The day is fast approaching when every person who has ever lived will have their lives reviewed before the all-knowing eyes of God (2 Corinthians 5:10).
In the heavenly court, Jesus, who loves you--your best friend--will be your attorney, judge, and witness. It will doubtless also confirm as lost those whose names are not judged in the pre-advent judgment. Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations.
Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans. At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters.
He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580.
Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well.
Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith. He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named “San Salvador” -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli. Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first “discovered” the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus.
However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islands’ original inhabitants. They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the “end of the world,” and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea.
As he put it in 1500, “God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St.
He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology.
Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (“Hail, Queen”), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.… I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies.
He also, a Christopher, a “Christ-bearer,” would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the East—he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christian’s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land. In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the “providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in life” and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power.
He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed.
Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. On the other hand, if the Ten Commandments are still binding, it would be the most tragic mistake to discount even one of those great moral precepts. For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.
Then we will determine by comparing scripture with scripture just what the Old Covenant was.
Christ actually enters into the life of the believer and imparts His own strength for obedience. He will actually live out His own holy life of separation from sin in our earthly bodies if we will permit Him to do so.
Paul wrote, "For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.
No wonder the Bible emphasizes the "better promises" of this glorious new agreement!
One of them addressed me in quite a loud voice - loud enough to cause about fifty people near the front of the auditorium to stop and listen. The only day ever commanded for weekly worship is the seventh day of the week - the same Sabbath Jesus kept during creation week and the one He will keep with His people throughout all eternity. Jesus did not hesitate to command the observance of His death, even though it had not taken place yet. But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise. God had promised Abraham a son by his wife Sarah, but because she was almost 90 years old, neither of them believed such a thing could happen.
Isaac perfectly represents the principle of the New Covenant relationship based upon regeneration, a new-birth experience, which begets the life of the Son of God in all who believe.
When he trusted God to give him a son through Sarah, he was being obedient to God's will, and properly represents the New-Covenant Christians.
God gave Abraham the sign of circumcision to remind him of how he failed by trusting the flesh. Although we are saved by grace, rewards will be given based on works, deeds, or conduct--which prove the genuineness of a Christian's faith (James 2:26). The life of every lost person (including Satan and his angels) will be carefully reviewed by the righteous, who will then totally agree with Jesus' decisions regarding the reward for each one. Amazingly, he succeeds in convincing the nations of earth that they can capture the holy city.
Guardian angels will probably shed tears over the loss of the people they protected and loved for years. Satan will be punished (as will all other sinners—Revelation 20:12-15) for his own sins, which will include responsibility for (1) the existence of sin, (2) his own evil actions, and (3) influencing every person on earth to sin. Since the judgment is God's work and He has all the facts, we should stop judging others and let God do it.
The divine sequence is stated three times (verses 8-14, 20-22, 24-27) in this one chapter as follows:A. The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines). The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada.
Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term “Indian” was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac.
Later that day they would row to their ships, Colon taking his place on the Santa Maria, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes.
At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the order’s distinctive cord.
Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church.
Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, “I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crow’s nest.… Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. He agreed to become the atoning sacrifice to redeem man, should Adam and Eve choose to sin. By partaking of the divine nature, the weakest human being begins to live the very life of Jesus Christ, manifesting His victory, and crucifying the flesh. After the death of Christ, no change whatsoever could be made in His provisions to save mankind. Just as easily He could have commanded the observance of His resurrection, which was still future, in order that it might become a New Covenant requirement.
The righteousness of the law will be fulfilled by Jesus in all of His people (Romans 8:3, 4). Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road. Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands.
This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista.
I heard a voice in pious accents saying, ‘O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. They boast of being delivered from the law and claim to walk in a glorious freedom from the Old Testament covenant of works. Received into the heart which has been spiritualized by the converting grace of Christ, the same law becomes a delight.
In the same way, the natural, carnal body and mind of a sinner cannot bring forth the fruit of obedience. On four occasions when the book of Revelation mentions the great judgment, it brings forth praise and thanksgiving!
Instead, it simply confirms the choices which people have already made to serve either Jesus or another master (Revelation 22:11, 12). This is what the symbolism of the transfer of sin to the scapegoat (Satan) on the day of atonement is meant to convey. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe. For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more. It did gender to bondage, it proved faulty, had poor promises, and vanished away - all because the people failed to obey their part of the agreement. In the same way, Christ's covenant or testament would begin to operate just as soon as He had confirmed the covenant by His death at Calvary.
Every requirement had been laid down clearly by the perfect pattern of His sinless life and provision had been made for the writing of His magnified law, by the Holy Spirit, upon the mind of each believer. When God used His power to create a new life within Sarah, the impossible happened, and she bore a son.
The same works of obedience are there, but they are there for a different reason and from a different motive.
All begin new year with a clean slate.These five symbolic steps represent literal atonement events which are instituted from the heavenly sanctuary--God's celestial headquarters for the universe.
From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.’ ” The voice continued at length and closed with “Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia. Putting all these things together we can see why a new covenant was desperately needed, which would have better promises.
Not only is the law not grievous for the Spirit-filled child of God, but obedience becomes a joyful possibility. When God uses His power to create new life in the soul, the impossible happens again - a human being becomes spiritual and obedient.
However, the redeemed people will be coming to heaven from a world that has been degraded by sin. The first point above is the symbol of the literal atonement event of the first point below; the second point above is the symbol of the second point below, etc. Then it becomes the mark of identification - the love symbol - for those who are born of the Spirit. Both the angels and the inhabitants of other unfallen worlds would certainly feel uneasy about admitting anyone to God's heavenly kingdom who might start sin all over again.
God loves us so much that He has given us the books of Daniel and Revelation to make these end-time issues clear.
The books and records are available.No Cover-UpGod is not involved in some celestial cover-up. The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. Our only safety lies in listening to Him and following His counsel from these great prophetic books.E. The heavenly books will be helpful to the righteous because they will show how the grace of the gospel changed their lives.J.
The unchangeable moral law was preserved in both Old and New Covenants as the perfect revelation of God's will. This makes it even more important for all beings in the universe to see firsthand how extremely patient God has been with sinners. Everything is open, and every person who has ever lived plus all the good and bad angels will be viewing this drama of all dramas.The Lost Fall to Their KneesSuddenly there is a movement.
Unless I make Him Lord of my life, there is no way I can ever become a full-grown Christian clothed in Christ's righteousness. Without Jesus' resurrection power in our lives daily to protect us from the devil's traps, we will be devastated by Satan. Then in one great, almost simultaneous move all remaining people and evil angels, including Satan, fall prostrate before God (Romans 14:11). They openly clear the name of God from all false accusations and give witness to His loving, fair, merciful treatment of them.All Confess That the Sentence Is FairAll confess that the sentence of death pronounced upon them is fair--the only safe way to handle sin. The accusations and claims of Satan have been exposed and unequivocally discredited as the perverse lies of a hardened sinner. 5.   The wicked will be present in person for judgment at the close of the 1,000 years after they surround the holy city.
7.   At one phase of the judgment every person (good and bad) who has ever lived, plus all evil angels and Satan, will be present in person. Instead, it basically confirms the choices that people have already made either to serve Jesus or to choose another master. 13.   The main purpose of the judgment is to make it clear to people, Satan, the good and bad angels, and the inhabitants of other worlds that God has handled the sin tragedy wisely, equitably, and righteously since its inception.



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