Another blue-and-white group from Iznik is erroneously called 'Golden Horn ware' because the first examples of it were discovered at a site on the Golden Horn in Istanbul. Unlike brick, these were preferred for indoor applications and were suitable for a multiplicity of geometrical arrangements. Thereafter however production shifted heavily in favor of the latter as there was a strong surge in the demand for tiles as decorations in the extensive building programs undertaken by Suleyman I (1520-1566) and his successors when the Ottoman Empire was politically, economically, and culturally at its peak. Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century.
The forerunner of the style is said to be a lamp in the Dome of the Rock that is dated 1549 and bears the signature 'Musli'. The tiles on the Tomb of Sultan Mehmed Resad V in Eyup (Istanbul, 1918) for example were made at the manufactory of Hafiz Emin Usta, which was then operating in Kutahya. Many examples of Kutahya ceramics from this period are to be found in museum and private collections in Turkey.The difficult straits into which the Iznik industry had fallen in the 18th century inspired some in Istanbul to establish a reliable source of tiles that was closer to home and easier to control.
Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century. We also have the Tile owen to finish the process.Group lessons for High Schools and Universities can be provided all year long.
Turquoise was the most frequently-used color for glaze although cobalt blue, eggplant violet, and sometimes black were also popular. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials.


Compositions are relaxed and free, offering greater scope for experimentation with new and richer arrangements.
The most common forms are dishes, plates, and jars.During the 19th century, quality dropped off sharply. Forms from this period consist of jars, ewers, jugs, vases, flower-pots, and candle-holders as well as animal and human figurines. There is also a proliferation in vessel forms of which deep and footed bowls, vases, ewers, dishes, lamps, candle-holders, and mugs are but a few.Around the middle of the 17th century, the quality of the Iznik potteries began to feel the impact of the economic distress and political upheavals from which the Ottoman Empire had begun to suffer. Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. Designs prepared by artists who were employed in the studios of the Ottoman court were sent to Iznik to be executed in wares ordered for use at the palace. There is even evidence, in the form of written complaints, that orders placed by the court in Istanbul were being delayed.8 By the 18th century, the ceramic industry in Iznik had died out completely and Kutahya replaced it as the leading center in western Anatolia.
But where production at Iznik was discontinued, Kutahya plodded on.For a while, the Kutahya potters produced inferior copies of Iznik blue-and-whites but they also began producing ceramics whose forms, colors, and techniques are quite distinct. Among them are a group of Christian liturgical utensils and tiles with religious themes that were made by Armenian potters for their churches. Forms, which can be elegant, include thin-walled small cups, saucers, bowls, ewers, pitchers, flasks, incense-burners, lemon-squeezers, and ornamental eggs.


This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries.
To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu).
This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any). It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.



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