Happo - 8 directions; as in happo-undo (8 direction exercise) or happo-giri (8 direction cutting with the sword). In particular, Zen emphasizes various sorts of meditative practices, which are supposed to lead the practitioner to a direct insight into the fundamental character of reality (mokuso). Although there are some specific exercises for misogi practice, such as breathing exercises, every aspect of Aikido training maybe looked upon as misogi.


Some teachers remove the weighty philosophical implications, and the pressures of expectation which accompany them, by referring to the pre-class meditation as sitting quietly. A boxer might practice with a jump rope, but would never use the jump rope in the ring, rather, the skills provided by the jumping exercise would be present in the ring, whether apparent to an observer or not. In many traditional forms of meditation, focus on the breath is used as a method for developing heightened concentration or mental balance.






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