25.10.2014

Treatment of gastric cancer ppt presentation

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Squamous cell carcinoma ? Endoscopic view of the oesophagus shows a tiny, early ulcer which proved on biopsy to be malignant. Squamous cell carcinoma ? An established, infiltrating, well- differentiated lesion exhibits islands of malignant epithelium invading deep into oesophageal muscle. Squamous cell carcinoma ? Endoscopic view shows circumferential involvement of the oesophagus with friable tumour. CASE: Squamous cell carcinoma ? A 62-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and marked weight loss was found on endoscopy to have a poorly differentiated tumour of the middle third of the oesophagus.
Case ? CT scan reveals regional metastases and a large primary mass obstructing the oesophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma ? This sagittal section through the larynx, trachea and anterior wall of the Oesophagus obtained at autopsy of a 57-year-old man who presented with a short history of dysphagia. Adenocarcinoma ? Barium swallow study reveals a large polypoid lesion in the body of the stomach, causing a filling defect.
Diffuse adenocarcinoma - linitis plastica ? Barium study shows the typical appearance of an extensive linitis plastica involving the entire stomach, which appears fixed and narrowed. Pancreatic carcinoma ? Barium study shows a tumour mass in the head of the pancreas invading the duodenal loop and producing changes in the fold pattern. Multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma in haemochromatosis ? A 61-year-old man with haemochromatosis and a 12- year history of hepatomegaly and diabetes mellitus died after developing liver failure with ascites. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma ? Typically, these tumours may appear as (a) a surface vascular tumour or as a hemorrhagic tumour mass.
Lung metastases ? Chest film of a 19-year-old Asian man who presented with hepatocellular carcinoma shows the well- defined pulmonary nodules characteristic of metastatic deposits. Familial adenomatous polyposis ? FAP is a genetic disorder greatly increasing the risk of bowel cancer. Carcinoma in ulcerative colitis ? Malignancies developing in ulcerative colitis may present as an infiltrative plaque, or a polypoid mass ? The cumulative risk of cancer increases dramatically with the duration of ulcerative colitis.
Staging ? Stages B3 and C3 (not shown) signify perforation or invasion of contiguous organs or structures (T4).
Adenocarcinoma of caecum ? Intestinal obstruction occurs late in the course of the disease.
Adenocarcinoma of caecum ? Large, fungating tumours, as seen here, are a less common presentation of colorectal tumours; they predominate in the caecum. Inflammatory processes on any mucous membrane, and particularly on tonsils, are classified according to the intensity of proliferation. Destruction of the inflamed tissue is the most virulent symptom, which is actually putrid inflammation, eventually leading to necrosis of the mucous membrane. Incitant agents of this disease are spirochete of the oral cavity and the fusiform bacteria, which create a pestilent symbiosis.


The initial stage of this disease involves necrosis of the upper layer of one of the tonsils, with the occurrence of ulcers, covered with a loose fibrous membrane of dingy gray coloring with a yellowish hue.
It is important to keep in mind that symptoms of Vincenta€™s angina are often unnoticed: general well-being is almost undisturbed, body temperature rises for no more than one degree.
The treatment of Vincenta€™s angina includes immediate antibiotic therapy, prescribed by an otolaryngologist, as well as daily procedures, including removal of pus from the surface of tonsils, and treating them with antiseptic solutions. Agranulocytosis is a blood pathology, which is about rapid decrease of protective white blood cells (neutrocytes, eosinocytes, basocytes) up to their complete deficiency.
This disease begins with the rapid rise of body temperature up to 40A°, sore throat, and bad breath. It should be noted that in such serious cases, as agranulocytosis and acute leucosis, tonsillitis is considered to be just one of the possible complications. Thus, ulcers on tonsils are more likely to be an alerting symptom of a more serious disease than just covering of tonsils with pus. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common bacterium that is present in millions of people worldwide.
There are several antibiotic regimens known to be effective, each taken by mouth for 10 days to 2 weeks as directed by your physician to eliminate H pylori from the stomach.
Weight loss and right upper abdominal pain, with minimal dysphagia, developed in a 58-year-old man.
After 20 years, there is a 15% incidence of colon cancer, which increases to 50% after 40 years. For example, Vincenta€™s angina, induced by a specific incitant agent, is characterized by this very peculiar symptom. Catarrhal inflammation is expressed in reddening of tissues and discharge of liquid matter. This type of pathological course of tonsillitis is typical to agranulocytic tonsillitis, tonsillitis in the presence of leucosis and fusospirochetal gingivitis, otherwise referred to as Vincenta€™s angina. Putrid inflammation develops in the result of their harmful influence on the tissues of the organism, weakened due to exhausting diets, vitamin deficiency, a recent infectious disease or a severe somatic pathology. Eventually, the ulcer can grow deeper, up to the decomposition of the tonsil and proliferation of the process onto lower tissues.
However, enlargement of lymph nodes along the inflamed side is rather prominent (this pathology is usually one-sided). It develops as a symptom of various diseases a€“ for example, autoimmune diseases (lupus), allergic (especially, induced by certain medication), infectious, provoked by radiation, etc. It should be aimed at controlling joining infections and promotion of the blood forming function. Nevertheless, such life threatening diseases can be disclosed during the diagnostics of necrotized tonsillitis.
In order to exclude the most virulent variants, it is required to visit an otolaryngologist and undergo all the necessary testing.


Initially, it can take a practically asymptomatic course; however the disease is threatening with possible complications. The next stage involves appearance of membranes and purulent coating and is referred to as fibrinous inflammation, which is observed in such diseases as lacunar and follicular tonsillitis.
Presence of local nidi (sites) of pathological infection, such as decaying teeth, gingivitis, stomatitis and others is of significant importance in the etiology of Vincenta€™s angina.
The patient complains of the sensation of foreign body in the throat, difficulty swallowing, bad breath and excessive salivation.
This phenomenon is accompanied by increased sensibility to infections and threatens with the rapid development of sepsis a€“ penetration of bacteria into the blood. Therapy includes antibiotics, medical stimulation of blood forming organs, transfusion of blood components, local treatment of the inflamed organs, including tonsils. Acute exacerbation with pronounced pain and complete decomposition of tonsils can be observed in just two weeks after the beginning of the disease. It is known to be responsible for 60% to 80% of gastric ulcers (those occurring in the stomach) and 70% to 90% of duodenal ulcers (those occurring in the first part of the small intestine). These diseases are aggressive in themselves, while ulcerous tonsillitis is just one of its evidences. Its main purpose is compensation of leucosis, whereas the treatment of tonsillitis is symptomatic. The recognition of an association between this bacterium and peptic ulcer disease (occurring in the stomach or duodenum) by Dr Barry J. In any case, ulceration of the mucous membrane of tonsils is an alerting symptom, which requires additional examination by an otolaryngologist. Warren, both from Australia, was made in 1983, and they were awarded the Nobel prize in physiology (how the body works internally) and medicine in 2005. It is now understood that peptic ulcer disease is not caused by stress or by eating foods high in acid. Although the infection typically is acquired in childhood, it may continue without any problem throughout a person's lifetime. Only 15% to 20% of those who carry this bacterium ever develop symptoms related to an ulcer. Treatment is recommended only for people who have an ulcer as a consequence of the bacterium's presence. Treatment is important because people who have ulcers tend to have recurrent problems, and eliminating the H pylori infection prevents relapses. Patients infected with H pylori are more likely than others to develop certain types of cancer of the stomach, so testing and treatment for H pylori infection is recommended in patients with a family history of gastric cancer.



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