11.10.2013

Treatment of cervical cancer stage 3

Photograph of the thigh of a 7-year-old girl shows a large, fungating tumor mass that had been present for 3-4 months. About a week after her annual pelvic exam, 22-year-old Julie* woke up to an unwelcome voicemail from her gynecologist’s office. The USPSTF recommends that women over 30 undergo routine HPV testing, along with their pap smear, every five years. Marc Arbyn, an epidemiologist at the Scientific Institute of Public Health in Belgium, agrees. In spite of the USPSTF recommendations, some doctors choose to perform HPV tests on women under 30. For older women, however, HPV testing can be an efficient tool for determining how to proceed when a pap smear turns up abnormal cells, according to a 2013 review coauthored by Dr. HPV tests are sensitive to cellular abnormalities, but they are less adept at determining the severity of the abnormality, and often return false positives, according to the USPSTF. Despite her youth, Julie was referred for a colposcopy after her pap smear and HPV test revealed abnormal cells. The procedure is invasive, expensive and anxiety-provoking, Cuzick says, “So the intent is to focus that on women who actually really need it.” The price of a colposcopy can vary, but with additional fees, it usually comes to about $750. Similar to a routine pelvic exam, the patient lies on a table with feet in stirrups, and the doctor inserts a speculum into the vagina and swabs the cervix with vinegar, which turns the abnormal patches white. For patients who don’t have a biopsy during their colposcopy, or for patients whose biopsy reveals low-grade abnormalities, “you would basically monitor them,” says Cuzick. If the biopsy reveals “high grade” lesions that could be precursors to cancer, however, then the woman will need a larger surgery to have the abnormality cut out. During a loop excision, the doctor uses a low-voltage electrified wire to cut out the abnormal tissue while the patient is under anesthesia.
In a cone biopsy, the doctor uses a knife to make a cone-shaped cut and remove the abnormal cells.  Cone biopsies are slightly more expensive than loop excisions, costing about $1,500, and result in more negative side effects.
Because of these risks, many surgeons hesitate to perform such procedures on women under age 25 unless the cells are at an advanced stage of abnormality, Arbyn says. All comments are moderated, your comment will not appear on the site until it has been approved. Recent Comments“A recent advancement in stem cells culture may help to establish brain models for such researches.
Pap stands for “Papanicolaou test,” a screening method that detects pre-cancer and cancer cells of the cervix. Your doctor inserts a “speculum” into your vagina.  This instrument allows your doctor to see and collect cells from your cervix with a tool similar to a long Q-tip.
Your doctor will talk with you about the need for and timing of screenings if you’ve had a hysterectomy or a history that includes HIV, chemotherapy, cancer or abnormal Pap smears, or organ transplants.
When women are screened regularly, and follow up on abnormal results, the Pap test can decrease cervical cancer death by 80 percent.  The Pap test does not find all cervical cancers. Enter your email address to subscribe to our blog and receive email notifications when new posts are published.
DISCLAIMER: The information presented in this site is intended for general information and educational purposes. Condyloma is usually characterized by the appearance of warts or swollen rashes on the body surface. Genital bumps of Condyloma in men are usually hidden from view due to pubic hair around the foreskin. People suffering from too much stress, viral infections or compromised immunity are also highly susceptible to this disease. The differential diagnosis for Condyloma involves distinguishing the disease from conditions like Psoriasis that produces similar symptoms.
This process involves using extremely low temperatures, usually liquid nitrogen, to destroy genital warts.


A chemical agent or device is used to curdle or destroy the tissues beneath the warts thus ensuring their removal. In rare cases, there are some types of Condyloma warts that can give rise to Vulva Cancer or Cervical Cancer in women.
If you note warts around your partner’s or your own genital region, get in touch with a doctor immediately.
Breastcancer.org is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing information and community to those touched by this disease. About 80 percent of people will contract HPV after becoming sexually active, according to the Cleveland Clinic, and about 20 million people have it at any given time. Most people never realize they are infected because the virus generally doesn’t cause any immediate health problems.
Preventive Services Task Force, women over 21 should have a pap smear (also called cytology) every three years to screen for cervical cancer.
Young women with positive HPV tests often don’t require any further action other than continued observation, but the test can be distressing, and frequently leads to recommendations for further procedures that can increase the patient’s medical expenses and require time off from work, Arbyn says.
As a result, colposcopies are over-prescribed — particularly for women under 30 who have received an HPV test. Although a quarter of a million women have colposcopies each year, Cuzick says, only 20 percent of them have significant cervical abnormalities.
He suggests that patients wait about one year before their next test to see if the abnormalities have disappeared. Depending on the country, only about 10 to 20 percent of women with positive HPV tests go on to have a more involved procedure, usually either a cone biopsy or a loop excision.
In addition to vaginal bleeding and risk of premature birth, they can cause cervical scarring, which can lead to painful periods and fertility issues. He advised her to schedule a pap smear every six months for up to three years so they could continue to monitor her cervix. Approximately one out of four women carries HPV, a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to cervical cancer. The collected cells are “smeared” on to a microscope slide and viewed carefully for abnormal cells.
This is a sexually transmitted disorder (STD) and mainly affects older teenagers and young adults.
It is seen in people belonging to the 17-33 age group but is more prevalent in individuals aged between 20 and 24. The lesions can arise on the external parts of the body or may appear within the vaginal canal, cervix or anorectal area. However, people with Condyloma warts arising internally in a body area may experience symptoms like heightened sensitivity in the region, itching and also burning feeling. People who have more than one sexual partner are at greater risk of developing this condition as it is difficult to say which partner suffers a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI). Women with HPV infection need frequent Pap Smear exams over a period of time to reveal these alterations. A Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) DNA Test can help in the identification of such a complicated case. It is advisable that you refrain from using any over-the-counter medications for cure unless your doctor suggests one to you.
Topical application of drugs may be unsafe for the health of pregnant women as well as their unborn infants. However, longer periods of incubation have also been reported as the condition may remain dormant for years. Timely medical assistance will help in quicker diagnosis and a faster treatment of this discomforting health condition and help you enjoy life to the fullest. Learn more about our commitment to providing complete, accurate, and private breast cancer information.


Despite its prevalence, there is no cure for HPV, and the lack of clarity about treatment options leaves many women feeling anxious after receiving their diagnosis. Some types of HPV can cause cells in the cervix to become abnormal, however, eventually leading to cancer. If the cells swabbed from the cervix during the pap smear appear abnormal, there are several ways for the doctor to proceed — some order a follow up pap smear, some schedule a biopsy to get a closer look at the cells, and others perform an HPV test, examining the cells on a molecular level for DNA from the cancer-causing virus.
Cuzick believes that performing HPV tests on younger women, particularly those under age 25, is unnecessary. If an HPV test comes back negative for precancerous cells, the American Cancer Society suggests that the woman return to routine screening.
Stephanie Blank, an obstetrician and gynecologist at NYU Langone Medical Center, says the speculum is “uncomfortable,” but that the biopsy amounts to a “quick pinch,” though there can be irregular bleeding afterwards. She describes a “slight pinching” when the doctor biopsied the cells, but says her recovery time only lasted through the car ride home.
Julie was relieved, but also skeptical about her experience after that initial positive test. Go ahead and read all about Condyloma, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. It is known to be the most common STD in the US and has shown a four-fold jump in the last two decades.
In some cases, dilute vinegar (acetic acid) may be applied over cervical or vaginal tissues to make warts visible.
This test is usually carried out in women above 30 years of age and exhibiting slight abnormalities in Pap Test result. The doctor may himself use a topical medicine like Podophyllin, Imiquimod (Aldara), Podofilox (Condylox) and Trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Check out these Condyloma images and get an idea about the main external symptoms of this disease. In a few cases, individuals treated for Condyloma may still pass on HPV virus to their present or future sexual partners.
But while practically every woman will be exposed to HPV at some point in her life, cervical cancer is relatively rare, affecting only about 5 percent of women worldwide, says Jack Cuzick, a cancer researcher at Queen Mary, University of London.
While young women tend to have more cellular abnormalities, he says, most of their infections disappear within six months.
But if the abnormality persists for a year or longer, or if the test comes back positive for a potentially cancer-causing strain of HPV, the gynecologist will conduct a procedure known as a colposcopy to assess the likelihood that the abnormalities will progress to cervical cancer.
But while loop excisions are highly effective for preventing the recurrence of abnormal cells, they can result in pregnancy complications later on, according to a 2005 study. The vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix consist of three shots over six months, and can protect against cervical cancer; both cost approximately $130.
If your Pap test detects abnormal cells, you can easily get treatment before they develop into cancer. There may also be some rare symptoms like increased vaginal discharge, itching around the private organ or dampness in the area having lesions. These can affect various parts of the body such as vagina, urethra, vulva, penis, larynx and the anus. These may be flat or elevated in appearance and can appear as a single lesion or as multiple lesions. The CDC recommends that boys and girls receive their vaccinations before becoming sexually active, though people can still be vaccinated until their early twenties.



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