17.03.2015

Traditional treatment for menstrual pain

The history of Aboriginal people and the criminal justice system in Western Australia has been marred by discrimination, over-regulation and unfair treatment.
Driven for the most part by recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal deaths in custody, Australian states and territories over the last two decades have introduced Indigenous Justice Agreements and related strategic frameworks in the hope of addressing consistently high rates of Indigenous incarceration and improving justice service delivery to Indigenous people. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner is required to report annually to the Attorney-General regarding the exercise and enjoyment of human rights by Australia's Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Australians are over-represented in all aspects of the Australian criminal justice system. The articles in this issue draw on cross-national comparisons of indigenous crime and justice in three ‘settler societies’, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. This paper begins with an Indigenous reflection on the Christian faith of the author’s family.
Trends in imprisonment are assessed from the magnitude of and changes in imprisonment rates.
As restorative justice matures, questions have been raised about the degree to which practices are sensitive to cultural and racial-ethnic differences or can address the dynamics of inter-racial crime. Doherty, Justine, An Increasing Indigenous Population, Implications for the Criminal Justice System, Information Bulletin, Attorney General's Department, Office of Crime Statistics, No.
The criminal justice system continues to encounter dilemmas about how it can appropriately accommodate boriginal Australians. Fitzgerald, Jacqueline, Why are Indigenous imprisonment rates rising?, NSW bureau of crime,  Bureau Brief, statistics and research, Issue paper no. Between 2001 and 2008 the adult Indigenous imprisonment rate rose by 37 percent in Australia and 48 percent in New South Wales. In 1997, Sue had a routine gynecological exam because she was concerned about the growth of some uterine fibroids. For several years, Sue continued to get annual CA125 tests, which indicated that the surgery and chemotherapy had eliminated the cancer. But in 2002, her CA125 levels started to go up again, indicating that the ovarian cancer may have returned and was spreading to other parts of her body. In June 2003, after a couple months recuperating from her unsuccessful surgery, Sue began treatment with the CyberKnife® Robotic Radiosurgery System. Though she was tired for a few weeks afterwards, she said that the recovery was a “breeze.” “Chemo just knocks you down,” Sue added. The best part for Sue was that she didn’t lose an entire golf season, like she would have if she was dealing with the side effects of chemotherapy. Follow-up tests indicated that the CyberKnife treatment stopped the growth of the tumor, but Sue remained concerned about the recurrence of her cancer.
The doctors’ close attention to Sue’s health led to the discovery a year later, in April 2004, of two new tumors in her mediastinum – a group of structures in her central chest that include the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus and lymph nodes. Sue soon became a veteran CyberKnife patient, having a total of five different tumors treated over the course of four years. Had Sue opted for surgery to remove the lung tumor, she would have faced several months of recovery and possibly lost her ability to breath without the assistance of oxygen – something that would have surely prevented her from playing golf.
Because of the numerous recurrent tumors, doctors recommended after her 2006 CyberKnife treatment that Sue should undergo chemotherapy, which she continues to this day.
She credits the CyberKnife System – as well as the support of her husband, family and friends – with allowing her to live her ‘”usual, very nice life“.
This inflammation is typically caused by the plica being caught on the femur, or pinched between the femur and the patella. The plica themselves are remnants of the fetal stage of development where the knee is divided into three compartments.


Treatment for Plica Syndrome should focus on decreasing the inflammation of the synovial capsule.
Part II provides a brief discussion of the history of Aboriginal people and the impact of colonisation in Western Australia and emphasises that past government polices and laws have shaped Aboriginal peoples’ contemporary perceptions of the justice system. Through analysis of relevant policy frameworks and associated policy material, rather than statistical analysis alone, we seek to examine whether strategic planning in this area is actually improving Indigenous justice outcomes as intended. This provision also allows the Commissioner to make recommendations as to action that should be taken to ensure such enjoyment. In the most extreme cases, indigenous individuals comprise 40% of the adult prison population and around 70% of juveniles in detention while only being 3% of the state’s total population. These kindred states share a common imperial history but their geo-political, cultural and historical trajectories are sufficiently different to reveal the underlying character of neo-colonial indigenous-state relations. Further discussion centers on the development of principles of cultural inclusion, establishing a shared New Dreaming and the discussion of the repatriation of Aboriginal remains. Imprisonment rates are calculated relative to the total population of imprisonable age (that is, people aged 18 years or over). This paper explores the similarities and differences between restorative justice and Indigenous sentencing practices, with the view to showing the unique contribution that Indigenous sentencing practices make to racializing justice. Justice Martin Kriewaldt was a judge of the Northern Territory Supreme Court from 1951 to 1960. But, in 2003, the discovery of a tumor in her abdomen – the result of metastasized ovarian cancer that she had been diagnosed with six years prior – threatened to drastically change the life she enjoyed. One of the tests done at the time was the CA125, which can identify the presence of ovarian cancer.
After numerous tests, doctors found a Stage III orange-sized metastatic tumor in her abdomen. Doctors recommended the CyberKnife System for its ability to treat inoperable tumors by using high doses of radiation with extreme precision that could avoid damaging Sue’s aorta, vena cava or other critical tissue in her abdomen. Each treatment lasted about one hour, during which the CyberKnife System’s robotic arm moved around Sue and adjusted the radiation delivery to any movements Sue made while she lay comfortably on the treatment couch. Typically surgery is required to remove lung tumors, and as a result, patients can lose part or all of a lung, experience serious breathing problems and face painful, and potentially deadly, complications.
Instead, a week after her CyberKnife treatment, Sue and her husband Doug, were celebrating their 45th anniversary at a surprise party with more than 70 friends and relatives. I only heard about it because I went to a lecture and it makes me so angry that not all cancer pateints can have this treatment, I ma very happy for Sue, hope you have a long, happy life dear. But the cyberknife doctor we have seen has said that cyberknife treatment will not work for her. The plica normally diminish in size during the second trimester of fetal development, as the three compartments develop into the synovial capsule. The Commissioner has a role to monitor and evaluate the human rights performance of Australian governments in concrete and specific circumstances.
In recent years, in an attempt to overcome these disparities, a number of states, and now the federal government, have established indigenous justice agreements. Despite differences in indigenous culture, the timing of contact, the ‘civilizing’ or assimilationist mechanisms employed and constitutional form all states share an over-reliance on penal measures as a means of regulating indigenous-state relations. The Indigenous status of prisoners was recorded for the first time in 1987 (Australian Institute of Criminology 1988), except for Queensland, where data on Aboriginality was not collected until the 1988 National Prison Census (Australian Institute of Criminology 1989).
The evidence suggests that most of the increase is due to increased severity by the criminal justice system in its treatment of Indigenous offenders. The results were shocking: Sue’s levels were more than 20 percent higher than normal, signaling that she did, in fact, have ovarian cancer.


According to the American Cancer Society, the ovarian cancer five-year survival rate for women under 65 years of age is only 56 percent, and it declines to only 38 percent after 10 years. However, during surgery, doctors realized that the tumor was wrapped around her aorta and vena cava, and couldn’t be removed. For three consecutive days in May and two days in June, Sue had CyberKnife treatments to attack each tumor individually.
The CyberKnife, however, has the unique ability to use internal anatomy to track a lung tumor as it moves with respiration. The plica can tether the patella to the femur, be located between the femur and patella, or be located along the femoral condyle.
Yet considerable variations in the penal experience of Aborigines are observed so that differences are often greater among them than between Aborigines and non-Aborigines. Rather, it refers to practices that recognize and draw on the strengths of racial-ethnic minority group knowledge and community activity in responding to crime.
However, his influence is important and his views continue to inform current debates in criminal justice. One quarter of the increase has come from remandees and three quarters from sentenced prisoners.
This feature eliminates uncomfortable breath-holding techniques and preserves healthy surrounding lung tissue.
If the plicae tethers the patella to the femoral condyle, the symptoms may cause it to be mistaken for Patello-femoral Syndrome. Iontophoresis and phonophoresis have been utilized successfully against inflammation of the plica and the synovial capsule. But at all times we must respect human rights principles, including the principle of non-discrimination. These anomalies in indigenous criminalization are for Tyler (this issue) not only a product of anomie but reflect variations in economic dependency, cultural resilience, ethnic fluidity and 'identity' arising from the encounter with the post-colonial state. Among the key ingredients is the participation of community leaders, open and honest dialogue between them and admitted offenders about the causes of their offending behaviour, and sentencing outcomes that utilize culturally appropriate and relevant programs and services.
During his period on the Bench Kriewaldt frequently struggled with the question of how to understand and distinguish Aboriginal people in relation to the criminal law.
Following the surgery, Sue underwent chemotherapy for almost five months, during which time she lost her hair and felt sick almost constantly. Moreover, because it is non-invasive, patients can continue with normal daily activities immediately after the CyberKnife treatment. Because of this similarity in symptoms, Plica Syndrome is frequently misdiagnosed as Patello-femoral Syndrome.
The impact of racialized justice is to build trust and cooperation between and among criminal justice officials and racial ethnic minority groups, to empower and strengthen racial-ethnic minority groups, and to bend and change the dominant perspective of “white law” toward a multi-ethnic perspective. This article examines some of the reported and unreported judgments of Kriewaldt J and focuses attention on his attempts to identify Aboriginal people in relation to the criminal law.
Diagnosis is often complicated by the thin structures of plicae, fenestrated septum or unfenestrated septum all being too fine to resolve well even in MRI.



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