16.06.2016

Traditional medicine journal impact factor xls

Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings. Turkish Miniature & Painting Workshops,(2 Hours Lesson - Per Student ) ,2 - 5 Student,55 Euro ,6 - more 40 Euro ,1 Student,65 Euro ,Lesson Includes. The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years.
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook. In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period. Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace. Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture. The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns.
Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt. The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life. The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire. Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century. Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire. Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems.
The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction. At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.
Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect.
The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries).
Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers. Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues.
A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression. The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events. Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”.
Sommes-nous prets a partager les donnees du dossier pharmacologique informatise des patients hospitalises?
To compare clinical and economic outcomes in patients receiving traditional meropenem dosing (1 g Q8H) with alternative dosing (500 mg Q6H) before and after the implementation of an autosubstitution policy based on pharmacodynamic evidence of equivalence.
A retrospective chart review of patients prescribed meropenem 5 months prior to (September 2008 – February 2009) and 5 months after the implementation of the autosubstitution policy (February – July 2009) for P&T committee approved indications was conducted. 28 patients who received meropenem 1 g Q8H and 29 who patients received 500 mg Q6H met our inclusion criteria. The pharmacodynamically optimized alternative dosing regimen of meropenem revealed similar clinical outcomes with significant economic benefits compared to the traditional dosing in the 5 month pre and post implementation period of the autosubstitution policy.
Antibiotic prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. More than half the surgeries (53.8%, n=284) were not fully compliant with all aspects of the guideline.
Obtaining blood samples from children is an activity which impacts patients, families and caregivers daily.
This study evaluated the extent of agreement between PGCs determined in samples obtained via ports using the push-pull method and FLPs in children with febrile neutropenia. Children with cancer with single or double-lumen ports who were receiving gentamicin participated in this prospective study. The push-pull method of blood sampling is a reliable and safe option for obtaining PGC results in children with ports.
In adult patient with febrile neutropenia, there is no difference in efficacy between single and double gram negative coverage antibiotic regimens. To compare the effectiveness and safety of a double coverage gram negative antibiotic regimen to a single coverage gram negative antibiotic regimen in pediatric febrile neutropenia patients. Retrospective review of patients who received piperacillin-tazobactam with or without gentamicin. A novel vancomycin dosing nomogram has been developed and successfully validated at two major Canadian teaching hospitals. For meropenem, maintaining time above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) relative to dosing interval (%T>MIC) at ?40% may improve clinical outcome. The use of multiple medications can increase the risk of adverse effects, drug interactions and non-compliance with drug therapy, all of which may result in less-than-optimal health outcomes.
To examine the number and types of drugs being used by seniors, and how utilization changes as seniors age. This study examined claims for 1,039,642 seniors on public drug programs in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and PEI from 2002 to 2008, representing over 80% of the senior population in those provinces in 2008.
Findings suggest a high proportion of seniors may be at risk for drug interactions and other adverse events due to the number of medications they are taking. Adherence to antiretroviral is important to mitigate resistance and adolescents are considered to be high-risk for poor adherence. To determine the feasibility of a large-scale and long-term adherence study using electronic monitoring in an adolescent HIV-positive population in Uganda and to compare accuracy of pill count (PC) and self report (SR) adherence determination with adherence determination using electronic medication vials (eCAPs). Fifteen patients were included: 40% were female, the mean age was 14, the mean baseline CD4 count was 244, and average treatment duration was 9 months prior to study entry. A large-scale adherence study in Uganda is feasible using a more robust electronic monitoring system.
Published guidelines for traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients include routine phenytoin prophylaxis for post-traumatic seizures (PTS). The incidence of PTS, potential drug interactions, rates of adverse drug reactions (ADR), and actual phenytoin utilization following TBI at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) was unknown, therefore this project aimed to characterize these aspects of TBI. In TBI patients at TOH, current phenytoin dosing results in lower than intended LD and MD and when phenytoin levels are evaluated, the therapeutic range is maintained for the minority of patients. Pharmacotherapeutic problems (PTPs) are common in older people and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to describe: 1) The types of PTPs present in patients who present to the clinic, and 2) medication assessment activities of the pharmacist. PTPs are common in older people with cognitive impairment or dementia, can be readily identified and managed by a clinical pharmacist. The efficacy of natural products (NPs) is being evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with increasing frequency, yet a search of the literature did not identify a widely accepted critical appraisal instrument developed specifically for use with NPs.
The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate a critical appraisal instrument sufficiently rigorous to be used in evaluating RCTs of conventional medicines with a section specific for use with single entity NPs, including herbs and natural sourced chemicals.
A new instrument for the critical appraisal of RCTs of NPs was developed and tested that is distinct from other available assessment instruments in its systematic development and validation. The ADapting pharmacists’ skills and Approaches to maximize Patient’s drug Therapy effectiveness (ADAPT) blended e-learning and experiential program (being piloted across Canada) aims to help pharmacists integrate professional skills required for collaborative patient care into everyday practice.
To describe the demographics of the ADAPT pilot cohort, their preparedness and motivation levels and reasons for participating. The pilot cohort of ADAPT participants represents both new and experienced practitioners with varied backgrounds. Opportunities to improve patient safety are hindered by wide-spread under-reporting of medication errors. A comparative case study analysis of medication error reporting practices and beliefs at four community hospitals in Nova Scotia was completed using focus groups (with physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) and in-depth interviews (with risk managers). Careful analysis of the textual data identified themes related to incentives for, barriers to, and positive facilitators of medication error reporting. These results could be used by hospitals to encourage reporting of medication errors and ultimately make organizational changes leading to a reduction in the incidence of medication errors and an improvement in patient safety. Mental health disorders pose a significant burden to the Canadian health care system, both from an epidemiological and financial perspective. Medication incidents from the ISMP Canada database were collected from October 7, 2000 to July 29, 2009. A total of 88 incidents were included in the analysis; 82 had an outcome of harm, and 6 had an outcome of death. The results of this analysis can provide insights into areas for system improvements for the use of psychotropic medications.
At the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, medication related events represent the highest percentage of patient safety incidents (28%). To identify and prioritize potential failures in morphine prescribing, so that these parts of the morphine prescribing process in greatest need of change are acted upon. A failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) was used by the multidisciplinary team to diagram the process of prescribing morphine and to brainstorm potential failure modes and predict their effects should the failures occur in real-time. 70 failure modes were identified and prioritized these using severity, detectability and frequency as scores. Can a Pharmacy Student-Pharmacist Model Be Used to Overcome Challenges and Sustain Admission Reconciliation? Although many hospitals have started implementing admission medication reconciliation, sustaining it for all patients organization-wide can be challenging.
One pharmacy student coordinated the process in the 120-bed oncology hospital; other students provided support when needed. Main challenges identified and addressed through the process map evaluation and collaborative effort were: 1) difficulty in identifying patients requiring a BPMH 2) efficiently tracking completed BPMHs with a paper-based recording system and 3) competing pharmacist workload priorities limiting time for reconciliation.
A collaborative model was developed that optimally facilitated an effective process of students (conducting BPMHs) supporting pharmacists in achieving target patient admission reconciliation.
The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known. In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons. For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state. In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court. These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz.
A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders. A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak.
Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library. These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand.
The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display.
The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah. Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase.
The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day.
The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society. The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs.
In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent.
The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans.
Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. Clinical outcomes of proportion of patients afebrile at 72 hours, time to defervescence and clinical failure rate were assessed. No significant differences in baseline demographics, indication for meropenem use, duration of therapy, and concomitant antibiotic use were observed between groups. The type, dosing and timing of antibiotic administration is critical to its efficacy in reducing surgical infections. Gynecology-oncology (Gyn-Onc) surgeries were the highest at 85.7% (n=18) and urological surgeries were lowest at 22% (n=9).
Non-compliance was a result of inappropriate antibiotic selection, antibiotic dose and (or) timing of antibiotic administration.
In children with cancer, blood samples are routinely drawn from subcutaneous central venous catheters (ports) using the discard method, finger lancet punctures (FLPs) or venipunctures to determine the plasma gentamicin concentrations (PGCs) required to individualize gentamicin dosing. PGCs were determined in blood samples obtained via the port using the push-pull method and via FLP.
Outcomes of these different antibiotic regimens have not been assessed in the pediatric population. The single coverage group received additional gram negative antibiotics more frequently than the double coverage group.
Paul’s Hospital nomogram development and 78 patients were used for Vancouver General Hospital’s nomogram development. Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) using pharmacokinetic parameters of healthy subjects showed that prolonged infusion (PI) (?3 hours) improved probability of target attainment (pTA) over short infusion (SI). Drug classes were defined using the World Health Organization’s Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classifications. This illustrates the importance of medication management strategies for seniors, and the need for communication between health care providers regarding seniors’ drug regimens.
Adherence measurements produced by pill counts and self reporting methods appear to overestimate adherence measured electronically.


Data were collected for the first 7 days of admission (or until discharge if earlier) and included demographics, loading (LD) and maintenance (MD) phenytoin dosing parameters, phenytoin levels, seizure occurrence, potential drug interactions, concomitant medications with anti-seizure properties and documented adverse reactions secondary to phenytoin.
Charts of 20 patients who were assessed between July 28-Sept 28th, 2010 were reviewed for demographic data, diagnoses, medications, and care plans.
Such an instrument would aid pharmacists and other health care providers in evaluating the evidence from trials of NPs to determine the quality of the evidence and applicability of results to their patients. The instrument is being used by pharmacists as well as academics teaching students critical appraisal skills. Understanding the pilot participants helps with understanding other results of the program evaluation. Study Design and Methods: The ADAPT evaluation is a multi-component, mixed-methods assessment. They recognize the need for change and are motivated to engage in ongoing education to seek skills to adapt to change and improve patient care. Data from these reports can be used to improve processes, identify areas for progress, and prevent similar errors from occurring in other settings.
Focus groups and interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using the template style of analysis. Incentives were thematized into three categories: patient protection, provider protection, and professional compliance. Future research efforts should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of implementing various strategies suggested for improving medication error reporting. Given the prevalence and financial burden of treating mental disorders, it is imperative that there is a strong emphasis on safe medication practices when managing psychotropic medications. Incidents with an outcome of harm or death involving antipsychotics, antidepressants, antimaniac agents, sedatives and hypnotics were included. These incidents occur at different patient care settings including the hospital, community pharmacy and long term care. The potential contributing factors identified provide a solid foundation for the development of solutions to minimize the recurrence of similar incidents.
Following this, the team identified causes of failure modes and prioritized these using severity, detectability and frequency.
Single point weaknesses are steps so critical that their failure would result in a system failure or adverse event. We attempted a quality improvement initiative to 1) identify and address workflow challenges and 2) explore whether a collaborative model of pharmacy student supporting pharmacists conducting best possible medication histories (BPMH) could sustain a target of > 80% of all admitted patients receiving reconciliation. All students were trained and certified in performing medication histories and reconciliation. Overall, 470 patients were admitted to inpatient units over the course of 11 weeks of observation in 2010. We believe a similar model can successfully aid other hospitals having challenges sustaining reconciliation, while providing students with the opportunity to actively learn and engage in essential direct patient care.
Click to enlargeWhile traditional biomedical training focuses on acquiring disciplinary expertise, a complementary suite of learning techniques is catching on at Cornell.
The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480. The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period.
Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets. Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century.
While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions.
We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society.
Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection. In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new. There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture.
In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others.
The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an. There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting. The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject.
A cost minimization analysis was completed to quantify any cost savings accrued through implementation of the policy. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the compliance with the pre-, intra-, and post-operative recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis at a tertiary care hospital. Agreement between PGCs determined in port and FLP blood samples was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis and comparison of simulated dose adjustments. Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test was used to compare duration of fever and change in serum creatinine between the two treatment groups. Although statistically significant, the change in serum creatinine in the double gram negative coverage group compared to the single coverage group was not clinically significant. Expansion of the nomogram to include patients with impaired renal function in addition to prospective evaluation of the nomogram is underway.
Although it may be appropriate for a patient to be taking a high number of medications, the additional risks should be considered. The number of drugs was calculated as the number of unique drug classes a person claimed in a given year.
The most commonly used drug classes were used to treat chronic conditions such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart failure, and emphysema. The Memory Clinic at the Centre for Family Medicine Family Health Team is a novel, primary-care based, inter-professional clinic for patients with cognitive impairment that includes a clinical pharmacist as part of the team. Pharmacotherapeutic interventions were necessary for most (95%) patients and consisted of discontinuing anticholinergic drugs (10%), medications without an indication (30%), untreated conditions (20%), and undertreated conditions (45%). The new assessment instrument was assembled based on content of the two lists and the addition of a Review’s Conclusion section. This component captured demographic information, preparedness and motivation levels (analyzed with descriptive statistics).
Participants regularly engage in ongoing education, many possessing additional certifications. Barriers were thematized into five categories: reporter burden, professional identity, information gap, organizational factors, and fear.
By analyzing the incidents involving psychotropic medications, systems based contributing factors could be identified which can inform quality improvement initiatives. A quantitative analysis was conducted to provide an overview of various trends such as the severity of outcome.
A number of themes have been identified and were classified under the patient care setting where the incident occurred. Due to the voluntary nature of the Safety Reporting System, the recorded number of 38 reported events is likely an underestimation. In order to identify challenges, process maps were developed outlining the steps in the medication reconciliation workflow. The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below. In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found.
One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R. His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style. This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century. We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli. According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils. The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia. Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style. While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base. Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin.
Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality. Differences in dose adjustments calculated using port and FLP PGCs were clinically insignificant in the majority (88.4%) of cases.
Validation in a total of 80 test patients showed that the integrated nomogram had the highest predictive success in the St. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were the most commonly used drug class among seniors aged 65 to 84, while single-ingredient angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were the most commonly used class among those aged 85 and over.
Person-pill-days (one day where adherence was measured for one medication in one person) was calculated for each patient and a weighted paired t-test was then used to compare the levels of adherence among all subjects for the three different adherence methods. There is a paucity of literature regarding the types of PTPs that burden these patients and that may be identified and managed by a clinical pharmacist. Qualitative analysis of introductory posts included deductive and inductive methods to identify themes. Positive facilitators were thematized into three categories: reducing reporter burden, closing the communication gap, and educating for success.
A qualitative analysis was conducted to identify recurrent themes and contributing factors.
For example, in the hospital setting, the themes identified included “multiple medications”, “incorrect dose”, “incorrect patient”, “incorrect medication”, “change in order”, “transitions of care” and “dose omission”.
Although not the sole contributing factor, prescribing practices contributed to a number of these incidents. Secondly those scored with severity 5, meaning a severe or catastrophic effect should a failure of the step occur (n = 12). Rodney Dietert, professor of immunotoxicology in the College of Veterinary Medicine, co-created a new course, Tools for a Lifelong Career in Research, to give students practical tips to make the most of their research careers by activating creativity.
After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace.
Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720). Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application. The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism. Compliance with recommendations was defined as appropriate antibiotic selection, dose and timing at each stage of surgery (pre-, intra- and post-operative).
The acceptable targets for the lower limit of the ICC and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were ? 0.80 and ±6%, respectively.
Addition of gram negative coverage antibiotics occurred more frequently in the single coverage group. The most frequent were initiating medications (21%), a change in dose (13%), discontinuing medications or switching to alternative medications (12% each), provide patient education (12%), and enhance adherence (10%).
Participants indicated they would report medication errors more frequently if reporting were made easier and if educated about the reporting process and timely feedback. Incidents classified under these themes were further analyzed to identify potential contributing factors. Finally, risk priority number (RPN) which is calculated based on frequency, detectability and severity (n = 5). Team performance was monitored daily, posted weekly and new process improvements were implemented weekly. Dietert co-authored an accompanying textbook on the subject and has given many workshops to share techniques that help scientists gain broader perspectives on problem-solving.“Contemplative practices,” a broad set of activities that facilitate a state of calm centeredness and aid the exploration of meaning and values, are employed in many corners of higher education. Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989). At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent. The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608.
The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95). Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made. After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted.
His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting. Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced. Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi. Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam.
From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book.


The overall compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis at University Health Network was 46.2% (n=244). Differences in simulated dose adjustments calculated using either the port or FLP samples that differed by > 20% were considered to be clinically significant.
Mean percent increase in serum creatinine was 25% in the double coverage group and 10% in the single coverage group (p = 0.03). 93%, 67% and 23% of patients had a measured compliance of greater than 95% among SR, PC and eCAP methods, respectively. Examples of contributing factors identified included complicated instructions in orders, pre-pouring of medications and the lack of a systematic medication reconciliation process. The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life.
This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish. The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting.
The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits.
The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque. In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude. It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century.
The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world.
Qualitative date revealed participants wanted to improve their skills to provide better patient care and to prepare them for changes in the profession, including working within an interprofessional team. There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting.
However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character. Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio. The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent. Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work. Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence.
Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.
This paper presents the material I’ve developed as well as contemplative practices frameworks in a biomedical context. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance.
By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts. Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period. Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it. Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting).
The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part.
In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India. Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works. This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style. Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style. Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries.
The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art. Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art.
It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90.
The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities. Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures. Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word. Dietert finds many parallels between basic elements of the initiative and the Tree of Contemplative Practices framework, and suggests ways other institutions could share similar educational tools.“In an age when students are more wired in than ever, their default is to get information externally,” Dietert says. Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio). Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well. Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts. It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures. They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures.
Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718. Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing. When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time.
For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work.
The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library. The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting. Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania.
Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works. In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse. The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures.
In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen"). New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted. The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world. Students who learn these things become more resilient because they have multiple ways to problem-solve and access information. Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed. The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories. Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs. Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks. Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities. For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities.
The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy".
The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul. This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician.
Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595).
The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink. The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period.
From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat. In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes. New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent.
The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404). The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines.
One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (? With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion. Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames. The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200). The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision. The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature. These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief. Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants. Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended.
The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed.
They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars. No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art.
Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures.
Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced. Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples. Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy. Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi.



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