12.10.2015

Traditional chinese character encoding

The Chinese language is the oldest written language in the world with at least six thousand years of history. Although many Chinese dialects exist, the written language is a common form of communication. Traditional or classical Chinese characters is taught and used by Chinese in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Korea, Japan, and elsewhere. In an attempt to make the Chinese language more understandable to the western world, China developed the "pinyin" (pin-yin) system.4 The pinyin system uses the western alphabet and spelling to pronounce Chinese words. Mandarin or Putonghua is the most common dialect used in China and has been adopted as a second language by those who speak other Chinese dialects. Cantonese, also known as Yue or Guangdonghua, is spoken in Hong Kong, most of Guangdong, and the southern Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region.
Xiangdialect12 is also known as Hunanese and is spoken primarily in the Hunan Province, located in southern China.
Min dialect13 is spoken mostly in Fujian, Taiwan and Hainan, and parts of eastern Guangdong and the Leizhou Bandao Peninsula, and in areas of Southeast Asia. Gan dialect14 is used mostly by the people living in Jiangxi and the southeastern corner of Hubei.
Wu dialect15 is spoken by a majority of the people living in Zhijiang and the southern areas of Jiangsu and Anhui.
Kejia or Hakka dialect16 is spoken in the northeastern Guangdong area, southwestern Fujian, southern Jiangxi, and in areas throughout southeastern China and Southeast Asia.
Over the last several decades, the Northwest has seen large immigrant influxes from China, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia. These non-English speaking immigrants have various levels of educational and professional backgrounds, such as doctors, professors, teachers, business owners, engineers, labor workers, housewives, and scholars.
An English speaking person cannot understand or even imagine how frustrating and frightening it can be for a non-English speaker to answer the phone or door. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a federal regulation that applies to all health care providers receiving federal financial support from the US department of Health & Human services. All interpreter and translation services have contracted interpreters and translators in multiple languages who are ready to be sent out to the field for different functions. There are three different styles of interpreting: consecutive, paraphrase and simultaneous. Maintain eye contact with the client or the patient at all times and talk to them directly (not to the interpreter).
Chinese character inscriptions have been found in turtle shells dating back to the Shang dynasty1 (1766-1123 BC) proving the written language has existed for more than 3,000 years. Even though people are not able to verbally communicate in different provinces, they are able to understand each other in writing.
These characters are used in addition to traditional Chinese characters in an informal setting, such as in comics or entertainment sections of newspapers or magazines. Chinese languages have been transliterated into the pinyin system since 1892 5 (except personal and location names). There is no rule that verbs, nouns, and adjectives must agree with one another in Chinese writing. There are more than 70 million people belonging to 55 different national minorities living in China.7 Each minority has their own spoken language.


Modern Chinese dialects evolved between the 8th and 3rd centuries BC.8 The differences in dialect are due to the different pronunciation and vocabulary.
Some have fled China for political freedom after incidents such as the Tiananmen Square10 events where students who spoke up for democracy were rapidly crushed by Chinese government. No matter what kind of background they have, they all must face the most challenging task of learning how to speak and write English.
The regulation requires that providers use effective methods of communication with people who, because of their national origins have limited proficiency in English. The Chinese written language uses single distinctive symbols, or characters, to represent each word of the vocabulary. However, the written language can be further subdivided into three forms: simplified, traditional, and informal slang or phonetic. Examples of Chinese newspapers distributed in the United States that use traditional Chinese characters is "Ming Pao" or "Sing Tao" newspapers. In 1977, Chinese officials made a formal request to the United Nations (UN) 6 to use the pinyin system for naming geographical locations in China. Many of the minority groups do not have a distinguishable written form for their languages.
It is the universal language used throughout the northern, central, and southwestern provinces of China. Others are well-educated professionals seeking business and educational opportunities in the United States. In the mid 1900s, many Toisanese emigrated from Toisan area to the States as railroad workers. Therefore, interpretation and translation services are necessary in every field ranging from government officiating, law enforcement, and court activities, to medical encounters, insurance affairs, and industrial business and so forth. Learning the English language is very difficult for many individual reasons including finances and time restraints, limited education, and age. The children have taken over many of the parents' traditional duties because of their English skills like reading the mail, relaying school news and information, answering the phone, assisting in shopping, making appointments, and interpreting.
The 1998 Guidance Memorandum explains what types of interpreter services are necessary to meet the Title VI responsibility. The State provides a written and oral certification exam for all medical, administrative, and court interpreters.
Currently, Washington State provides one of the best translation and interpretation services in the nation.
There is also a form called "pin-yin" which is the Chinese language transcribed using a roman spelling.
Simplified characters have existed for hundreds of years, but only became officially acceptable in formal writing after the founding of the People's Republic of China in an attempt to improve literacy among Chinese in China, during the 1950's.
People who use pinyin are those who are more familiar with the western alphabet and are learning to speak Mandarin Chinese. Mandarin is also spoken in Taiwan, where it is referred to as Chinese rather than "Putonghua." Often, Mandarin is used in local TV and radio media. Still others have little education and have come to the States in search of better life for themselves and their families. More recently, a number of ethnic Chinese has fled Southeast Asia as refugees.11Hong Kong's return to Chinese control in 1997 also stimulated a great deal of movement from both Hong Kong and China.


More recently, Toisan people continue to immigrate to the States for improved economic opportunity.
Often due to the difficulties in communication, non- English speaking immigrants will try to get help and resources in their own community or postpone their problem until it is unavoidable. However, even though the children can speak English fluently they often have a difficult time conveying information completely back to the parents because of their lack of sophistication with the Chinese language or because the subject is inappropriate for a child to interpret.
A majority of the non-English speaking immigrants have been pleased with the interpreter services and feel very fortunate to live in the Great Northwest! A large dictionary usually contains 40,000 characters.2 One must be able to recognize 2,000 to 3,000 characters to read a newspaper. 3 The Chinese newspaper "Ren Min Ri Bao" or "People's Daily" uses simplified characters as do subtitles of news reports or videos that come from China. On the other hand, Mandarin-speaking Taiwanese reads the Chinese "World Journal" newspaper in the States. People from China, Taiwan or other countries have to learn to recognize these characters before they can read all sections of Hong Kong-based news papers.
Although Cantonese is a common dialect spoken on a daily basis in Hong Kong, government officials and schools are required to use Mandarin dialect. Many of the immigrants have adopted to learn the Cantonese dialect but some speak only Toisanese. Also, English speaking children or relatives are often busy with their own daily lives to be constantly translating for their non- English speaking family members. The languages with certified state interpreters are Spanish, Russian, Vietnamese, Cantonese, Mandarin, Cambodia, Mien, Japanese, Korean, Romanian, and Somalia.
Although the written system has been altered over time due to revolutions and political changes, the principles of the language along with the symbols and characters have remained basically the same.
Because there are not as many readers of this paper in the United States, the paper is not commonly carried in local Chinese stores.
The Chinese newspaper, "World Journal" is distributed in the States and is published for Mandarin speaking Chinese. Cantonese is arguably the most commonly spoken dialect in the Pacific Northwest, Northern California, and the East Coast.
The whole issue of language knowledge has created a lot of tension and frustration in Chinese households and has led to power struggles between the parents and the child or family member. People who are literate in simplified Chinese characters may not be literate in traditional Chinese. For example: if a provider asks, " Have you been vomiting?" the Chinese patient may answer " No". Actually the patient may mean "not now, but two days ago I did." In this case, the provider is not getting the correct information.
Cervical cancer screening Among Chinese American Women, submitted manuscriptTaylor, VM, et al.
Cervical cancer screening Among Chinese American Women, submitted manuscriptMicrosoft Encarta 98 encyclopedia: China section.



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