30.07.2016

Shrinking cancer tumors with herbs

There have been some recent debates on cannabis and if it can fight off cancer cells.  Recently it wentfrom a scheduled I drug, meaning it was harmful and addictive to a scheduled II drug, meaning it may have some benefit. This study founded that the most common cannabinoids in marijuana would help to weaken cancer cells and make them more susceptible to radiation. Huge reductions were noticed when the two ( tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidol) were used together. The National Institute on Drug abuse recently reported that studies have been done on animals proving that marijuana can help to reduce cancer cells and also help kill certain types of cancers. This is a huge step in cancer fighting treatments as cannabis can be a great medical benefit to those that are suffering with cancer. While briefly hospitalized for evaluation, Bruce Davis chatted with a fellow patient who was far along in his treatment for cancer at the University of Chicago Medicine. In the months before, Davis, 59, experienced a long list of worrisome symptoms, including double vision, dizziness, problems with balance, and drooping of both his left eye and the right side of his face. After undergoing sophisticated imaging studies offered here at the medical center, he met with neuro-oncologist Rimas Lukas, MD, an expert in central nervous system tumors.
Lukas told Davis that the studies pointed to a brain stem glioma, but a biopsy was necessary to definitively identify its type and grade. Using imaging guidance, a neurosurgeon performed the biopsy, removing a tissue sample the size of the tip of a pencil. Neuro-pathologists at the University of Chicago Medicine determined the tumor was an astrocytoma, which is a type of glioma. Lukas recommended an aggressive treatment protocol that included a combined radiation and oral chemotherapy regimen for six weeks, followed by 12 cycles of oral chemotherapy over 12 months. While most of Davis’ symptoms disappeared, he still struggled with double vision in his distance eyesight.
What is the Brazilian government doing to keep the Rio Olympic athletes and spectators safe from the Zika virus? The Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) and IBM Research (IBM) have developed a new non-toxic hydrogel that is capable of shrinking breast cancer tumors more rapidly than existing therapies. IBN Group Leader, Dr Yi Yan Yang, elaborated, "We have developed new, effective materials for nanomedicine, which has been one of IBN's key research focus areas since 2003. Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer affecting women worldwide, including in Singapore.
Herceptin, a US Food and Drug Administration approved therapeutic for the treatment of HER2+, helps to combat this type of cancer by regulating the cancer growth. Recent clinical trials using subcutaneous injection of Herceptin shortened the injection time to around 5 minutes and were reported to have comparable therapeutic efficacy as traditional methods at the same dosing schedule. The new drug administration method via IBN's and IBM's hydrogel offers a further improvement on these studies as it supplies Herceptin continuously over a prolonged period of time. Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer may soon have an alternative therapy when they develop resistance to trastuzumab, also known as Herceptin, according to a laboratory finding published in Clinical Cancer Research.
Breast cancer treatments such as Herceptin that target a marker called HER2 have dramatically improved outcomes for women with this type of cancer. Proteins and other therapeutic compounds injected directly into the blood stream tend to be broken down rapidly by the immune system.
A team of University of Pennsylvania researchers has developed a computer model that will aid in the design of nanocarriers, microscopic structures used to guide drugs to their targets in the body.
Extremely thin stacks of two-dimensional materials, which could deliver applications fine-tuned to the demands of industry, are set to revolutionise the world in the same way that graphene will. IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. The information here is not a substitute for a thorough veterinary exam if you suspect your horse has an eye condition.
The horse has a total visual field of nearly 360 degrees, meaning a horse can just about see its tail with its head pointed forward. A newborn foal may exhibit droopy eyelids, low tear secretion, a round pupil, reduced corneal sensitivity, lack of a menace reflex for up to 2 weeks, and prominent lens sutures. Lid trauma needs to be corrected as soon and as accurately as possible to prevent undesirable scarring and secondary corneal desiccation and ulceration. Upper eyelid damage is more significant in horses because the upper lid moves over more of the equine cornea than does the lower lid.
Eyelid melanomas are found in grey horses, with Arabians and Percherons also at increased risk. Sarcoids are solitary or multiple tumors of the eyelids and periocular region of the horse (Figure 5).
Immunotherapy for sarcoids includes using attenuated Mycobacterium bovis cell wall extracts such as the immunostimulant Bacillus Calmette-Gaérin (BCG).
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common tumor of the eye and lids in horses (Figures 6 and 7). White, grey-white, and palomino hair colors predispose to ocular SCC, with less prevalence in bay, brown and black hair coats. Cryotherapy, immunotherapy, irradiation, radio-frequency hyperthermia, CO2 laser ablation, or intralesional chemotherapy should follow surgical excision of equine ocular SCC. Equine corneal ulceration is very common in horses and is a sight threatening disease requiring early clinical diagnosis, laboratory confirmation, and appropriate medical and surgical therapy. Ulcers can range from simple, superficial breaks or abrasions in the corneal epithelium, to full-thickness corneal perforations with iris prolapse. Corneal ulcers in horses should be aggressively treated no matter how small or superficial they may be. Tear film proteinases normally provide a surveillance and repair function to detect and remove damaged cells or collagen caused by regular wear and tear of the cornea. Corneal touch threshold analysis revealed the corneas of sick or hospitalized foals were significantly less sensitive than those of adult horses or normal foals.
The environment of the horse is such that the conjunctiva and cornea are constantly exposed to bacteria and fungi. A defect in the corneal epithelium allows bacteria or fungi to adhere to the cornea and to initiate infection. Horses with painful eyes need to have their corneas stained with both fluorescein dye and rose bengal dye as fungal ulcers in the earliest stage will be negative to the fluorescein but positive for the rose bengal (Figures 9, 10,11,12). Corneal cultures should be obtained first and then followed by corneal scrapings for cytology. Once a corneal ulcer is diagnosed, the therapy must be carefully considered to ensure comprehensive treatment. Topically applied antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol, bacitracin-neomycin-polymyxin B, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, or tobramycin ophthalmic solutions may be utilized to treat bacterial ulcers.
Severe corneal inflammation secondary to bacterial (especially, Pseudomonas and beta hemolytic Streptococcus) or, much less commonly, fungal infection may result in sudden, rapid corneal liquefaction and perforation. Serum is biologically nontoxic and contains an alpha-2 macroglobulin with antiproteinase activity. Atropine may be utilized topically q4h to q6h with the frequency of administration reduced as soon as the pupil dilates. Topical atropine has been shown to prolong intestinal transit time, reduce and abolish intestinal sounds, and diminish the normal myoelectric patterns in the small intestine and large colon of horses.


Topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as profenol, flurbiprofen and diclofenamic acid (BID to TID) can also reduce the degree of uveitis.
Horses with corneal ulcers and secondary uveitis should be stall-rested till the condition is healed.
Conjunctival grafts or flaps are used frequently in equine ophthalmology for the clinical management of deep, melting, and large corneal ulcers, descemetoceles, and for perforated corneal ulcers with and without iris prolapse.
Topical corticosteroids may encourage growth of bacterial and fungal opportunists by interfering with non-specific inflammatory reactions and cellular immunity. Corticosteroid therapy by all routes is contraindicated in the management of corneal infections. Fungi resemble mushrooms and are normal inhabitants of the equine environment and conjunctival microflora, but can become pathogenic following corneal injury. Focal trauma to the cornea can inject microbes and debris into the corneal stroma through small epithelial ulcerative micropunctures. Medical therapy consists of aggressive use of topical and systemic antibiotics, topical atropine, and topical and systemic NSAIDs. Deep lamellar and penetrating keratoplasties (PK) are utilized in abscesses near Descemet's membrane, and eyes with rupture of the abscess into the anterior chamber. Cataracts are opacities of the lens and are the most frequent congenital ocular defect in foals. Most veterinary ophthalmologists recommend surgical removal of cataracts in foals less than 6 months of age if the foal is healthy, no uveitis or other ocular problems are present, and the foal's personality will tolerate aggressive topical medical therapy.
The results of cataract surgery in foals by experienced veterinary ophthalmologists are generally very good, but the cataract surgical results in adult horses with cataracts caused by ERU are often poor. Serology for Leptospira pomona can be used for prognostic evaluation of the likelihood of blindness occurring in one or both eyes.
A complete ophthalmic examination should be performed to determine if the uveitis is associated with a corneal ulcer.
Irreversible blindness is a common sequelae to ERU, and is due to retinal detachment, cataract formation or severe chorioretinitis. The major goals of treatment of ERU are to preserve vision, decrease pain, and prevent or minimize the recurrence of attacks of uveitis.
Treatment should be aggressive and prompt in order to maintain the transparency of the ocular structures. Therapy can last for weeks or months and should not be stopped abruptly or recurrence may occur.
Overall, the prognosis for ERU is usually poor for a cure to preserve vision, but the disease can be controlled.
Anti-inflammatory medications, specifically corticosteroids and nonsteroidal drugs, are used to control the generally intense intraocular inflammation that can lead to blindness. When the frequent application of topical steroids is not practical, the use of subconjunctival corticosteroids may be used.
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) can provide additive anti-inflammatory effects to the corticosteroids, and are effective at reducing the intraocular inflammation when a corneal ulcer is present. Flunixin meglumine, phenylbutazone, or aspirin are frequently used systemically to control intraocular inflammation. Topical atropine minimizes synechiae formation by inducing mydriasis, and alleviates some of the pain of ERU by relieving spasm of ciliary body muscles. Vitrectomy appears more beneficial in European warmbloods with ERU than in Appaloosas with ERU in the USA.
Sustained release suprachoroidal cyclosporine A implants may also be beneficial to treating ERU. Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) is found mainly in the Appaloosa, and is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait. Clinical signs include visual impairment in dim light with generally normal vision in daylight, and behavioral uneasiness and unpredictability occurring at night. CSNB appears to be caused by functional abnormality of neurotransmission in the middle retina. Acute blindness may be associated with head or ocular trauma, ERU, glaucoma, cataracts, intraocular hemorrhage, exudative optic neuritis, retinal detachment, or CNS disease. Horses can adapt amazingly well to blindness, whether unilateral or bilateral, if allowed to adjust to their new condition. Collectively the cornea, iris and ciliary body lesions are termed anterior segment dysgenesis. Your browser does not support inline frames or is currently configured not to display inline frames. Oolong tea, black tea, green tea, white tea, or all the teas in between, Narien Teas has what you want.
George’s university in London, which debated over how effective cannabis can be in shrinking brain tumors.
In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. He was formerly a graduate student at the University of Chicago in the 1970s and received treatment here in the 1990s. Lukas explained that several neuroscientists would discuss Davis' case and work together to diagnose and treat him. Because of the brain stem’s location and function, the biopsy would involve an intricate surgical procedure. The mass was infiltrating into the brain stem and there was no clear boundary between normal and abnormal tissue.
While the tumor was low-grade (slow-growing), the critical location and infiltrating nature meant it could not be surgically removed.
Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) provided real-time pictures of the structures in the brain while delivering radiation beams contoured to the shape of the tumor, allowing Chmura to directly target the tumor with powerful radiation while sparing healthy brain tissue. At the end of treatment in March 2012, an MRI showed it was less than half its initial size. University of Chicago Medicine neuro-ophthalmologist Jeffrey Nichols, MD, corrected the problem with inexpensive prisms inserted into Davis’ regular glasses.
As described in their publication in Advanced Functional Materials, the Vitamin E-incorporated hydrogel can be easily injected under the skin without causing any inflammatory response, and releases anti-cancer drugs in a sustained manner over several weeks.
The sustained delivery of Herceptin from our hydrogel provides greater anti-tumor efficacy and reduces injection frequency. One in four breast cancer patients will have a significantly lower survival rate as they possess a particularly vicious type of cancer gene known as the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2+), which causes rapid, unrestrained growth and division of cells in their breasts. Currently, this drug is administered intravenously in most clinics on a weekly basis, with each treatment session lasting 30 to 90 minutes. Food and Drug Administration has issued a positive review of a breast cancer drug from Roche that could soon become the first pharmaceutical option approved for treating early-stage disease before surgery. Prompt medical care can often make the difference between a horse keeping its sight … or going blind.
Preservation of the eyelid margin is critical if at all possible in order to preserve eyelid function (Figure 4). Cryotherapy, hyperthermia, carbon dioxide laser excision, intralesional chemotherapy, and intralesional radiotherapy can also be effective for sarcoid.


The cause may be related to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation, periocular pigmentation, and an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Belgians, Clydesdales and other draft horses have a high prevalence of ocular SCC, followed by Appaloosas and Paints, with the least prevalence found in Arabians, Thoroughbreds and Quarterhorses. Corneal infection and uveitis are always major concerns for even the slightest corneal ulcerations. These enzymes exist in a balance with inhibitory factors to prevent excessive degradation of normal tissue. This decreased sensitivity may partially explain the lack of clinical signs often seen in sick neonates with corneal ulcers. Healing of large diameter, superficial, noninfected corneal ulcers is generally rapid and linear for 5-7 days, and then slows. The corneal epithelium of the horse is a formidable barrier to the colonization and invasion of potentially pathogenic bacteria or fungi normally present on the surface of the horse cornea and conjunctiva. The unique corneal healing properties of the horse in regards to excessive corneal vascularization and fibrosis appear to be strongly species specific.
Medical therapy almost always comprises the initial major thrust in ulcer control, albeit tempered by judicious use of adjunctive surgical procedures.
Serum administered topically can reduce tear film and corneal protease activity in corneal ulcers in horses. Topically applied atropine (1%) is effective in stabilizing the blood-aqueous barrier, reducing vascular protein leakage, minimizing pain from ciliary muscle spasm, and reducing the chance of synechia formation by causing pupillary dilatation. Even topical corticosteroid instillation, to reduce the size of a corneal scar, may be disastrous if organisms remain indolent in the corneal stroma.
Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon, Curvularia, Penicillium, Cystodendron, yeasts, and molds are known causes of fungal ulceration in horses. A corneal abscess may develop after epithelial cells adjacent to the epithelial micropuncture divide and migrate over the small traumatic ulcer to encapsulate infectious agents or foreign bodies in the stroma.
PK eliminates sequestered microbial antigens, and removes necrotic debris, cyotokines and toxins from degenerating leukocytes in the abscess (Figures 13 and 14).
This extracapsular procedure through a 3.2mm corneal incision utilizes a piezoelectric handpiece with an ultrasonic titanium needle in a silicone sleeve to fragment and emulsify the lens nucleus and cortex following removal of the anterior capsule. The problem is that new blood vessels form on the iris and anterior lens capsule in the eyes with ERU and they can bleed during the surgeries. It is a group of immune-mediated diseases of multiple origins cause inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, choroid, and retina (Figure 15). Hypersensitivity to infectious agents such as Leptospira interrogans is commonly implicated as a possible cause. The presence of a corneal ulcer precludes the use of topical corticosteroids, but not topical nonsteroidal drugs. Specific prevention and therapy is often difficult, as the etiology is not identified in each case. Systemic corticosteroids may be beneficial in severe, refractory cases of ERU, but pose some risk of inducing laminitis and should be used with caution.
Some horses become refractory to the beneficial effects of these medications, and it may be necessary to switch to one of the other NSAID to ameliorate the clinical signs of ERU. CSNB does not generally progress, hence its name, but cases of progression to vision difficulties in the daytime are noted. Diagnosis is by clinical signs, breed, and ERG with decreased scotopic b-wave amplitude and a large negative, monotonic a-wave. When the scan revealed a lesion on his brain stem, Davis came to the University of Chicago Medicine.
This reduces the need for frequent drug administration, paving the way for the tumors to be eradicated in fewer treatments. Our multidisciplinary research teams are working with various industrial, clinical and academic partners to develop new materials and tools to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Thus, our approach may help to improve patient compliance, offering a better alternative to existing breast cancer treatments. The need for frequent infusion of Herceptin and the accompanying discomfort may affect patient compliance adversely.
In animal studies with tumor-bearing mice, the tumors shrank in size by 77% 28 days after the Herceptin-loaded hydrogel was injected subcutaneously.
Injectable Hydrogels from Triblock Copolymers of Vitamin E-Functionalized Polycarbonate and Poly(ethylene glycol) for Subcutaneous Delivery of Antibody for Cancer Therapy, Advanced Functional Materials, (2013).
The microphthalmic eye may be visual or associated with other eye problems that cause blindness.
It is suspected that flies may be able to transfer sarcoid cells from one horse to traumatic skin lesions in other horses. Intralesional chemotherapeutics including 5-FU or cisplatin have been used with varying success rates. Both bacterial and fungal keratitis in horses may present with a mild, early clinical course, but require prompt therapy if serious ocular complications are to be avoided (Figure 8). Iridocyclitis or uveitis is present in all types of corneal ulcers and must be treated in order to preserve vision. Healing of ulcers in the second eye may be slower than in the first and is related to increased tear proteinase activity. The serum can be administered topically as often as possible, and should be replaced by new serum every 8 days. The emulsified lens is then aspirated from the eye while intraocular pressure is maintained.
Hence, the IBN and IBM researchers aimed to reduce the number of injections and injection time required by creating a biocompatible, biodegradable and injectable hydrogel that can be conveniently injected into the body and release Herceptin in a sustained manner. The hydrogel did not evoke any chronic inflammatory response and degraded within 6 weeks post-administration. Brooks is a veterinary ophthalmologist who is one of the country’s leading experts on equine eye diseases.
The horse utilizes both eyes until an object approaches within 3-4 feet when it is forced to turn or lower its head to continue to observe with one eye.
Through this, they were able to reduce the frequency of drug administration from weekly to only once in four weeks. He is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists and Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of Florida’s College of Veterinary Medicine. Cones are present in the horse retina suggesting that they have the capacity for color vision. There is little inflammation postoperatively in most horses following phacoemulsification cataract surgery and a quicker return to normal activity with phacoemulsification than other surgical techniques.



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