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PDF access policyFull text access is free in HTML pages; however the journal allows PDF accesss only to users from developing countries and paid subscribers. RESULTS: The anatomical success rate of the first operation was 90% in idiopathic and myopic groups, whereas it was 100% in traumatic macular hole group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the ILM removal helps in closure of the macular hole and retinal reattachment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical, ophthalmologic and molecular studies were carried out in two patients from different families and available first degree relatives. RESULTS: The mutations G3460A and G11778A in the mitochondrial genes MTND1 and MTND4, known to be causative for LHON, were found in one family each.
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of LHON should be considered in familial cases and in young adults with optic atrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study on 100 consecutive eyes of 100 patients with white cataract who had undergone MSICS with trypan blue assisted CCC.
RESULTS: Of the 100 eyes, 16 had intumescent, 67 had mature and 17 had hypermature cataract. CONCLUSION: In developing countries like India where phacoemulsification may not be affordable to a majority of those requiring cataract surgery, MSICS proves to be a safe and efficacious alternative for white cataracts especially with the adjunctive use of trypan blue dye.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 ┬Ál topically. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on eleven eyes of 11 patients of CNV during the period 2001 and 2002. CONCLUSION: ICG dye enhanced diode laser photocoagulation appears to be a potential option for juxtafoveal CNV. Optic disc morphometry with optical coherence tomography: Comparison with planimetry of fundus photographs and influence of parapapillary atrophy and pigmentary conus. CONCLUSION: OCT analysis of the optic disc produces significantly smaller parameters, compared to the established method of optic disc planimetry.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 7775 subjects of all ages, representative of the rural population of Andhra Pradesh, participated in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients of infantile and acquired basic esotropia were selected for this study.
Conclusions: This simplified method of surgical dosage calculation using MR recession as basis is predictable in patients of infantile and basic Esotropia. Materials and Methods: The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output.
Conclusions: Refractive error is of public health magnitude among school children of 14-16 years of age. Materials and Methods: Review of electronic medical records within a period of 29 months of consecutive patients who underwent surgical repair for RRD in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). Materials and Methods: This was an observational retrospective nonconsecutive case series in a tertiary care eye institute.
Results: The communications were seen as focal defects of the outer layers of elevated retina. Conclusions: Outer retinal communications between intra and subretinal space were noted in eyes having NSD associated with DME.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of Omani patients diagnosed as IIH in Sur Regional Hospital from January 2001 to December 2011 was carried out. Results: Forty patients were diagnosed as IIH during a period of 11 years from January 2001 to December 2011 in Sur Regional Hospital. Conclusion: This study shows that the incidence in south Sharqiyah is comparable to that of other countries. Purpose: To demonstrate the ophthalmic, endocrine, and neurologic spectrum of SOD in five Omani children and address the crucial role of high-resolution neuroimaging for its early and accurate diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in 2010 of all children in the pediatric ophthalmology database of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) who were diagnosed to have ONH. Results: Five patients (four males, one female) with the diagnosis of ONH were included in the study. Conclusion: SOD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with a wide spectrum of ophthalmic, endocrine, and neurologic manifestations.
Conclusion: VFQ was better among those students who were spectacle wear compliant compared with those who were not.
The clinical heterogeneity of the disease, its various autoimmune and antibody profiles, its long course and tendency for spontaneous cure makes the design of clinical trials difficult. Defective metabolism of essential fatty acids leading to relative dominance of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins (PGE 2 and PGF 2 ) has been reported as an important factor in the pathogenesis of AD.
Azathioprine has been shown to be effective and safe in parthenium dermatitis, but there are no reports of comparison of steroids and azathioprine in this condition. Atopic patch test can be used as a diagnostic tool in characterizing patients with allergen triggered atopic dermatitis. Though in use for more than a decade, we could not find any reports of studies directly comparing calcipotriol and tazarotene. Classical antihistamines are the drugs which block the H 1 receptors and are widely used in various allergic conditions, whereas H 2 blockers are mainly used for acid peptic disease.
The first patient was a 57-year-old man with plaque-type psoriasis on intermittent methotrexate therapy. Further evaluations revealed palmoplantar keratoderma along with recurrent acral blisters causing residual crusted ulcers which were present during the past six months.
Intrauterine growth retardation, ichthyosis, microcephaly, abnormal facial findings, and limb contractures are its key features. Thirty eyes with full thickness macular hole were treated with vitrectomy and removal of ILM.
Vitrectomy with ILM peeling is a reasonable surgical approach to treat macular holes of idiopathic, myopic and traumatic aetiology. The subjects were tested for the three common mutations seen in LHON by molecular techniques of polymerase chain reaction using mutation specific primers.
The nucleus was prolapsed into anterior chamber by using a sinskey hook and extracted out of the eye using irrigating vectis.
Intraoperatively CCC was incomplete in 4 eyes (4%) and had to be converted to canopener capsulotomy.

Two to three minutes after the injection of 5 ml of 25 mgm of indocyanine green (ICG) dye, 810 nm diode laser was used to treat the choroidal neovascular lesions.
The purpose of the present study was to compare OCT measurements of the optic disc with those obtained by planimetry of fundus photographs and to investigate whether OCT measurements are influenced by the amount of parapapillary atrophy or pigmentary conus at the disc margin. All eyes underwent optic disc assessment by OCT (fast optical disc protocol) and digital 20 degree disc photos.. Similarly, optic discs with pigmentary conus (n = 12) and discs without pigmentary conus (n = 70) did not differ significantly ( P = 0.65).
Neither presence, nor extent of parapapillary atrophy zone beta and pigmentary conus seems to produce a systematic error in measurements of disc size with the OCT. It is now recognised that the inflammatory process of the large arteries affects regions of the walls supplied by the vasa vasorum, suggesting that primary small vessel involvement may contribute to the development of the clinico-pathological features of Takayasu aorto-arteritis. Induced astigmatism was analysed by Cartesian coordinates based analysis, using Holladay's system. The responses of subjects older than 15 years (n = 5573) who completed a structured questionnaire regarding awareness (heard of glaucoma) and knowledge (understanding of disease) of glaucoma formed the basis of this study. Awareness of glaucoma was also significantly less among illiterate persons (p CONCLUSION: Awareness of glaucoma is very poor in the rural areas of southern India. Variations in clinical presentation, difficulties in eye examination, extended burden of the inflammation over quality of life, limited treatment modalities, risk of amblyopia are the main challenges in the management of pediatric uveitis. This measurement is of paramount consideration in refractive surgery, as proper centration is required for optimal results. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.
A detailed ocular examination was conducted of all children attending these schools and that included visual acuity testing, slit lamp examination, fundus evaluation, retinoscopy, cycloplegic refraction and subjective refraction. School screening program in countries like Nepal for early detection of treatable disease is useful to detect and correct refractive error in older students. The purpose of this study is to describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) morphological characteristics of NSD associated with DME in the form of outer retinal communications and to assess the correlation between the size of communications and various factors. We imaged NSD and outer retinal communications in 17 eyes of 16 patients having NSD associated with DME using SD-OCT.
The size of communications correlated positively with the size of NSD and subretinal detachment space hyper-reflective dots, and inversely with BCVA. All relevant demographic, ophthalmic, neurologic, endocrine, and neuro-radiological manifestations were recorded in a data collection form.
We evaluated the impact of the compliance of spectacle wear on the vision related quality of life (VFQ) among 12-13 years old and 15-16 years old Omani students with refractive error.
VFQ related to near work and school related activities seem to be the most influenced by spectacle wear compliance. A newborn Caucasian girl presented with a protruding corneal mass in her left eye at birth. The overwhelming need in this disease is to diagnose it early and identify those patients who will benefit most from early, aggressive treatment.
Evening primrose oil (EPO) as a source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has been of interest in the management of AD. Although H 1 receptor-mediated actions of histamine are primarily responsible for vasodilatation, vasopermeability, and itching, it has been observed that combined blocking of both H 1 and H 2 receptors may provide better relief. The authors present a case in which the clinical and laboratory workup diagnosis only revealed positive serology for hepatitis C virus. He discontinued his medications for 2 months and had exacerbation of psoriasis for which he self-medicated with methotrexate following which he developed ulceration of the psoriatic plaques accompanied by bone marrow suppression. We present a case of Neu-Laxova syndrome in a male appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn with characteristic features including ichthyosis, microcephaly, severe ectropion, rudimentary ears, eclabion, limb contractures, and hypoplastic genitalia.
A male patient aged 30 years with underlying HIV-2 infection presented to the department of STD with painful ulceration over the genital region of 5 months duration, with absence of penis. Ten eyes with retinal detachment served as negative controls and these patients underwent vitrectomy and ILM removal.
Genetic counselling should be offered to all 'at risk' relatives of a patient harbouring the mutation. Intraoperative and postoperative findings (according to OCTET classification) as well as postoperative visual outcomes were used as main measures to report the safety and efficacy of the surgery.
None of the eyes had posterior capsular rupture or zonular dialysis and no eyes were converted to conventional Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE).
High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples.
We describe a central bulge ("lenticonus") in the anterior lens capsule of some eyes with XFS. Classical ophthalmic features of the disease result from reduced ocular perfusion, which manifests as hypoxic retinal changes such as microaneurysms, arterio-venous anastomosis and non-perfused areas. This paper discusses the presentation, probable embryological cause and clinical implications of this unusual finding. The data suggest the need for community-based health education programmes to increase the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma. Pediatric uveitis is a cause of significant ocular morbidity and severe vision loss is found in 25-33% of such cases.
Patients underwent 3.5-7 mm recession of medial rectus (MR) in one eye depending on the pre-operative deviation and patient's age.
We measured manually the size of the outer openings of these communications and studied its correlation with various factors.
Data collected included age and sex of patients, age of onset of the disease, body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbid conditions, and medication use. All patients were born at term, with normal birth weights to healthy mothers with insignificant antenatal history. A high consanguinity rate and lack of history of alcohol and drug use were observed in our cohort. Although a cause-effect relation could not be proved, it might be advisable to include serology for this virus in the initial evaluation of patients with neutrophilic dermatosis. The second patient was a 68-year-old man with chronic plaque-type psoriasis for 20 years and was being treated with intermittent methotrexate for 15 years. Past medical and family history had remarkable findings such as natal teeth and similar skin lesions in her older brother since his infancy. Tissue smear from the ulcer and histopathological examination revealed large histiocytes with intracellular Donovan bodies (Pund cell). Proliferation of astrocytes and synthesis of new collagen along the inner surface of ILM was noted in the surgical specimens.

The amount of parapapillary atrophy (zone beta) was quantified as the number of clock-hours around the disc with adjacent parapapillary atrophy. This finding is associated with very fragile zonules and a high risk for intraoperative zonular dialysis.
The diagnosis of post-cataract filtering bleb was made which was managed by resuturing the wound. This article summarizes the common causes of uveitis in children with special approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of each clinical entity. Adjusting placement of MFIOLs for angle kappa is not supported by the literature but is likely to help reduce glare and haloes. Iris stromal cyst, especially those in newborns, usually requires therapy of aspiration, possibly with alcohol-induced sclerosis, or surgical resection. Together they also underwent 6 or 7 mm resection of the lateral rectus (LR) in the same eye depending on patient's age (6 mm for 3 years and below and 7 mm for older age).
Statistical analysis (correlation test) was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 14.0). Findings of ophthalmic examination, neuroimaging, and neurological assessment were recorded. A keratinized staphylomatous malformation involving the entire cornea and precluding further visualization of the anterior and posterior segment was observed in the left eye. He also self medicated with oral methotrexate 15 mg daily for 7 days for exacerbation of psoriasis and developed ulceration of the psoriatic plaques with bone marrow suppression and evidence of gastrointestinal erosions. The patients' clinical presentations and history are compatible with pachyonychia congenita presenting with concomitant features of both subtypes 1 and 2.
A final diagnosis of donovanosis with auto-amputation of penis with HIV-2 infection was made. The same procedure was performed to quantify the amount of pigmentary conus around the disc. This case illustrates retinal arterial occlusion as the presenting feature of Takayasu's arteritis. This case highlights the use of gonioscopy to visualise and evaluate the internal wound and discusses intraoperative recognition of internal leak and its management with horizontal sutures.
Centering LASIK in angle kappa patients over the corneal light reflex is safe, efficacious, and recommended. The main outcome measures were correlation of the size of communications with dimensions of NSD, presence of subretinal hyper-reflective dots, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Total number of new outpatients in the study period and the 2010 south Sharqiyah mid-population statistics were also collected. Radiological confirmation of ONH necessitates high-resolution imaging and interpretation by an experienced neuro-radiologist. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the right eye performed when the child was approximately 6-week-old had revealed an unexpected finding of macular cysts involving the inner nuclear and outer retinal layers. The patients were evaluated every month for 6 months to determine the response to treatment and side effects and then further followed up for another 6 months to determine any relapse. Efficacy was determined by the assessment of target psoriatic lesions under evaluation by using the severity scale (0-3) of erythema, scaling, and infiltration (ESI score). Centering in-between the corneal reflex and the entrance pupil is also safe and efficacious. The melanocytic iris tumors include freckle, nevus (including melanocytoma), Lisch nodule, and melanoma.
To the first group, evening primrose oil was supplied as 500-mg oval clear unmarked capsules, while placebo capsules identical in appearance and containing 300 mg of sunflower oil were given to the other group.
Because of the autosomal recessive inheritance of Neu-Laxova syndrome, in countries with high rates of consanguineous marriage, such as Turkey, physicians have to know this syndrome, and serial prenatal ultrasound examinations with genetic counseling should be performed on pregnant women at high risk. The literature regarding PRK in patients with an angle kappa is sparse but centering on the corneal reflex is assumed to be similar to centering LASIK on the corneal reflex.
Information from a tertiary referral center revealed that transformation of suspicious iris nevus to melanoma occurred in 4% by 10 years and 11% by 20 years. Ocular examination under anesthesia just prior to surgery revealed normal intraocular pressure, anterior segment and retina in the right eye.
After administration of the drugs, the prick test was repeated at 1 hour, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours, and the size of the wheal measured and statistically analyzed. Though HIV-2 infections are milder than HIV-1 infections in all aspects, donovanosis in this HIV-2 infected case presented with complications. Thus, centration of MFIOLs, LASIK, and PRK should be focused on the corneal reflex for patients with a large angle kappa. SD-OCT was normal in both eyes and showed complete resolution of the cysts in the right eye.
With pre-designed scoring system (based on four major parameters: extent, intensity, itching, and dryness), clinical evaluation was done at baseline and subsequent monthly visits.
Data of the first 25 patients from each group who completed the 5 months of trial were compiled and analyzed. Although clinical retinal examination might be unremarkable, SD-OCT may reveal cystic spaces in the macula.
Reading was done after 48 and 72hours Results: Out of the 75 subjects tested, 47% showed positive reactions, parthenium accounted for 42% of all positive reactions. The nonmelanocytic iris tumors are relatively uncommon and included categories of choristomatous, vascular, fibrous, neural, myogenic, epithelial, xanthomatous, metastatic, lymphoid, leukemic, secondary, and non-neoplastic simulators. In the absence of conditions known to be associated with macular edema, transient macular cysts may arise due to a developmental incompetence of the blood-retinal barrier or may represent transient spaces created during normal migration of retinal cells. Overall, the most common diagnoses in a clinical series include nevus, IPE cyst, and melanoma. In summary, iris tumors comprise a wide spectrum including mostly iris nevus, IPE cyst, and iris melanoma.
Risk factors estimating transformation of iris nevus to melanoma can be remembered by the ABCDEF guide. However, adverse effects and relapses were observed to be more frequent in patients treated with betamethasone. Rather than merely recording the presence or absence of a criterion, grading each of them adds objectivity to the diagnosis.

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