07.06.2016

Prostate cancer uk accounts

Prostate Cancer UK conducted a nationwide survey among men with prostate cancer in a bid to measure quality of care.
Premium publisher of current affairs and special reports on business, finance, tech and healthcare. The warning signs of skin cancerLike many cancers, some skin cancers – such as melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma – start as precancerous lesions. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements.
Majority (more than 95%) of testicular cancers arise from germ cells which are precursors of sperm. Although there is an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in the western world in the last 50 years it is a rare cancer compared to other cancers in men.
There is some evidence to suggest that sperm quality has decreased in the same period so there may be sharing of common causative factors for both problems. The simplest and most effective way to detect any testicular abnormality is to feel the testes systematically (palpation) at regular intervals.
If you have seen your general practitioner, they will refer you to a specialist (urologist) or they may arrange an ultrasound (US) scan of the testes when atesticular tumour is suspected.
In the specialist’s clinic you are examined and if testicular tumour is suspected, you will be asked to do some blood tests (tumour markers) and a CT scan. AFP, ?-hCG, and LDH levels are vital in the evaluation and management of patients with testicular cancer. It is important to note that there could be a significant impairment of spermatogenesis (sperm production) existing even before any treatment is started- such patients may not be able to do sperm banking; secondly, combination chemotherapy in testicular cancer has substantial effects on testicular function in particular sperm production, therefore it is likely that almost all patients become azoospermic (absent sperm). When you decide to freeze your sperm it may be useful to get a quick check of your fertility status by getting some hormone blood tests in addition to semen test. The simplest method is cryopreservation; sperm is collected by masturbation and immediately examined and frozen in a special fluid (preservative) and kept in liquid nitrogen.
Because of the Human fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) regulatory requirements special consent forms also have to be completed ahead of the storage.
If there are no sperm (azoospermia), there are a number of techniques that could be considered carefully to suit the needs of the patient.
When cancer cells break away from the original tumour and settle down in other places in the body and start increasing in number rapidly, a second tumours starts (secondary) forming (Metastasis).
All forms of cancer treatments – radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery are used in the treatment of testicular cancer taking into account the type, size, and location of the tumour, metastatic spread and general health.
The operation involves removal of the affected testis, its cord and dividing the cord at its attachment to the abdominal wall under general anaesthetic.
This operation involves removal of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes that lie at the back of the abdomen (retroperitoneum).
The first indication is for clinical stage I or IIa nonseminomas and the second being in men with retroperitoneal lymph node masses that remain after completing the course of chemotherapy.
RPLND for stage I and IIa non-seminomas: Nearly 30% of patients with clinical stage I non-seminoma patients are found to have lymph nodes with cancer which means that they have stage II disease. During the operation there are risks of injury to the intestines, nerves and blood vessels although these are rare. Other types of operations required to remove tumours remaining after chemotherapy: Lung and liver operations may be required by experienced surgeons. In low risk clinical stage I seminomas and non-seminomas active surveillance is an option after radical orchidectomy.
This option involves regular doctor appointments for CT scans, chest x-rays, and physical examinations, and blood tests for tumour markers at definite intervals. There is 70-80% response to first line chemotherapy and surgery (RPLND or other procedures). Patients with testicular cancer are young and have a high cure rate which means late toxicities are a major concern.
Why screening tests are importantGetting the right screening test at the right time is one of the most important things you can do for your health.
I can guarantee that after reading this, if you are male, then you will examine the length of your fingers. Furthermore, since this appears to be the first study linking relative finger length to prostate cancer risk, it is absolutely crucial that the findings are repeated in other studies. But if the findings are replicated, then it would provide an easy predictor of relative cancer risk. Professor Ros Eeles from the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden Hospital is one of the report authors. Professor Eeles said a previous study had found a link between exposure to hormones while in the womb and the development of osteoarthritis in men and women, again linked to having an index finger shorter than ring finger. The research paper contains some comfort for men with comparatively long ring fingers in these terms: "In men, long ring fingers compared with index finger length reflect a more masculine profile, for example, more likely to father a child and a higher sex drive". The newspaper article and this latest paper on prostate cancer risk make repeated mention of research by Professor John Manning at the University of Liverpool. Professor Manning has also suggested an association between prenatal exposure to testosterone, the ratio of digit length and male homosexuality in a study of 176 men.
So that's osteoarthritis, heart disease, breast cancer, autism, musical ability, sexual preference and depression, not to mention sex drive, male fertility and now prostate cancer. The new hand pattern research in the British Journal of Cancer is interesting, not least because it involves a decent number of volunteers, but I sincerely hope it doesn't give men with short, stubby index fingers any sleepless nights chewing on their fingernails.
You are right to point out that this issue of digit ratio has been around a long time, but most previous studies have been small.
Another weakness of this research is that the men involved did not have their fingers measured, but instead looked at a diagram and "self-reported". I am grateful to Dr Lophatananon from Warwick Medical School for allowing me to include the diagram that was shown to all the men on the trial. Finally Professor John Manning is now at Swansea University and drew my attention to a recent study on digit ratio and its possible relation to alcohol and tobacco consumption. Prostate cancer is the commonest malignancy in men accounting for 24% of all newly diagnosed male cancers and 12% of deaths. Diagnostic value of systematic prostate biopsy methods in the investigation for prostate cancer. 2 clicks for more privacy: On the first click the button will be activated and you can then share the poster with a second click. These precancerous lesions are changes in skin that are not cancer but could become cancer over time. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test to see if you might have prostate cancer and to monitor treatment for prostate cancer.
They are subdivided into seminomas and nonseminomas (NSGCT) or both based on the appearance under the microscope. Apart from undescended testis there is no demonstrable risk factor although testicular cancer in other testis is more common in patients who had previous testicular cancer. Testicular self-examination (TSE) can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. If the US scan proves to be abnormal you will then be referred to the specialist (Urologist). The blood tests include lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum tumour markers alpha (?) fetoprotein (AFP), and the beta (?) human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and routine blood tests such as full blood count and liver function tests. Patients with pure seminoma may have elevated levels of ?-hCG but do not have elevated AFP levels. They are used for determining diagnosis, staging, and prognosis and for following response to treatment. It takes about 2-3 years after the treatment for a high degree of recovery of spermatogenesis. The hormone tests include testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH). These forms indicate how long you wish to keep the material in storage for, what you wish the frozen material to be used for and what you wish done with the material in the event of your death or if you become incapacitated. In such cases, sometime sperm aspiration with a needle or extracting the sperm directly from the opposite testis can be done. Different types of tests including CT, MRI and PET-CT scans detect the extent of the spread. Determining the cell type is important for estimating the risk of metastasis and the response to chemotherapy.
When the elements of both seminoma and nonseminoma (mixed) are present the tumour should be treated as a nonseminoma. The texture, shape, weight and size of the prosthesis are roughly similar to that of normal testicle.
The lymphatics of each testis travel along the spermatic cord into lymph glands around the large vessels of abdomen (aorta and inferior vena cava).
In the second, men with nonseminomas who have masses that remain after chemotherapy are surgically removed if the mass is larger than one centimeter and the resection is technically possible (Post-chemotherapy RPLND). In the UK chemotherapy is usually preferred to surgery but the patient makes the choice between surgery and chemotherapy when treatment for stage I disease is indicated.
The nerves are known as sympathetic nerves which are responsible for ejaculation of sperm during orgasm.
RPLND performed after chemotherapy is a more difficult operation and is more likely to result in retrograde ejaculation.


This avoids chemotherapy, radiotherapy or further surgery and their side effects or complications. Radiotherapy is given in patients with early stages of seminomatous tumours (Stage I and IIa and limited stage IIb). Remaining 20-30% of patients will have a disease that does not respond or partly responds to chemotherapy.
The long term side effects include fertility problems, nerve damage, kidney damage and lung problems. Bergstrom R, Adami,H-O, Mohner M, Zatonski W, Storm H, Ekbom A, Tretli S, Teppo L, Akre O, Hakulinen T. This is an educational material and advice from your general practitioner or specialist is extremely important! Screening identifies diseases like cancer or diabetes early, often before you have symptoms, and when they’re usually easier to treat. There are suggestions of a link between finger length and heart disease, breast cancer, autism and even musical ability. This is my blog for discussion of medical and health issues, especially research and ethics. 2: Endocavitary end-firing ultrasound probe (ALOKA UST-675P), Onto this probe is mounted a needle guide, through which an 18G spring-driven core biopsy needle is passed. 3: Axial ultrasound image through mid-prostate showing the hyperechoic outer gland (peripheral zone) and from the inner glands(central and transitional zones). It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Germ cells line the tiny tubes (tubules – also called as seminiferous tubules) and undergo a series of proliferation and differentiation to become sperm.
If AFP is elevated in patients with pure seminoma, then the presence of an NSGCT component is considered. Obtaining levels of AFP, beta-HCG, and LDH in patients in whom testicular cancer are suspected is mandatory prior to treatment, as is monitoring of these levels during and after treatment. If tumour is present in both testes, healthy testicular tissue could be extracted and preserved after removal of testes. In stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer, blood serum markers should return to normal after this surgery. This part of the operation can be done at a later date also after all the treatment is completed. In men with pure seminomas and masses that are smaller than 3 centimeters are usually left unoperated but observed for changes with serial CT scans. The oncologists advise accordingly as to which stage I tumours are at a higher risks of lymph node spread.
The nerves are specifically looked for and preserved as the injury causes loss of normal ejaculation (retrograde ejaculation). Serum markers should be normal before operation or return to normal after radical orchidectomy to consider active surveillance.
The drugs are used in combination and at different times so that the cancer cells are attacked in different ways.
Increase in Testicular Cancer Incidence in Six European Countries: a Birth Cohort Phenomenon.
The typical cancer is a hypoechoic nodule, occasionally with increased vascularity or distortion of the prostate capsule. If we take a closer look at the change in incidence of infection at each hospital, there is a statistically significant decrease at Sandwell Hospital – following introduction of metronidazole suppository. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Nonseminomas have different combinations and are as such given the name of the cell subtypes. The risk for the disease is higher in first-degree relatives of cancer patients than in the general population. For very advanced cancer, a radical inguinal orchiectomy may, in rare cases, be delayed until after treatment with chemotherapy has been completed. Removing the diseased testis does not affect erection and sexual feelings (libido) if the other testis is normal. Traditionally RPLNDs are performed as open procedures using an incision down the middle of the abdomen (midline incision). If the lymph node involvement is present on RPLND, chemotherapy may be necessary to cure the disease. After orchidectomy a referral is made to the oncologist who would discuss or recommend this approach if they felt that this management is possible. Side effects are rare due to lower dosage of radiation but nausea and vomiting are not uncommon.
There is simultaneous increase in the incidence of all types of germ cell tumours (both seminomas and teratomas).
In selected patients use of laparoscopic RPLND (L-RPLND also called key hole RPLND) is possible mainly performed by experienced surgeons.
On the other hand if there is no disease is found then an unnecessary chemotherapy can be prevented.
In active surveillance the patient is monitored by blood tests and scans and the treatment begins only if there is recurrence of cancer.
Actinic keratosis (solar keratosis)The small, scaly patches caused by too much sun exposure commonly occur on the head, neck, or hands, but can be found elsewhere.
L-RPLND uses several smaller incisions instead of the one large incision and recovery is much quicker than open procedure. However, it is important to remember that the RPLND is a complex operation which requires specialist experience and technical skills in order to remove all of the appropriate lymph nodes and to minimize the side effects of the operation.
The side effects of chemotherapy are usually limited to the period chemotherapy is received but some side effects could last for a long time. That's because the smaller the cancer is when it's found, the better the chance for a surgical cure.
Smaller breast cancers are also less likely to have spread to lymph nodes and other organs such as the lungs and brain. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
Actinic keratosis usually appears on people after the age of 40, but they can show up in much younger people. All women aged 50 – 70 are routinely invited to have a free NHS breast screening every three years.
Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Younger women with risk factors or specific concerns may also be referred to a hospital breast clinic. Most do not become cancerous but doctors recommend treatment to prevent them developing into squamous cell skin cancer.
Actinic cheilitis (farmer's lip)Related to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition that usually appears on the lower lips.
Less common symptoms include swelling of the lip, loss of the sharp border between the lip and skin, and prominent lip lines. Persistent infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for cervical cancer (shown here, magnified).
Routine screening for HPV and abnormal precancerous cells helps to prevent cancer developing.
Cutaneous hornsThe cutaneous horn appears as a funnel-shaped growth that extends from a red base on the skin.
Smear test – cervical screeningDoctors have been using a smear test to screen for abnormalities which could lead to cancer of the cervix if they are not treated. It is composed of compacted keratin (the same protein in nails). It is a type of actininc keratosis. The size and shape of the growth can vary considerably, but most are a few millimetres in length.
It is common for older men to have urinary symptoms caused by a non-cancerous (benign) enlargement of the prostate. In 2016, the NHS cervical screening programme in England announced that it is changing to testing for HPV first rather than looking for cell changes in the cervix. It usually occurs in fair-skinned elderly adults with a history of significant sun exposure. Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) - so experts hope that identifying this risk earlier will lead to more accurate screening. When is a mole a problem?A mole (naevus) is a benign growth of melanocyte skin cells, which give skin its colour.
Those women found to have HPV will be offered a smear test to identify if abnormal cells are present. While very few moles become cancer, abnormal or atypical moles can develop into melanoma over time. Osteoporosis and fractured bonesOsteoporosis is a condition in which bones become weak and fragile.
The first symptom is often a painful bone fracture that can occur with only a minor fall, blow or even just a twist of the body. It is possible to both prevent and treat osteoporosis, which the NHS says affects around three million people in the UK.


Osteoporosis screening testsA test called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can measure bone mineral density and detect osteoporosis before fractures occur.
Dysplastic naevi (atypical moles)Atypical moles are not cancer, but they can become cancer.
You may be offered a DXA scan if you are thought to be at a high-risk of developing osteoporosis. Atypical moles may be larger (6mm or a quarter of an inch across or larger) or more irregular in shape, with notched or fading borders. Some people may have a genetic risk factor for melanoma, and the risk increases with overexposure to the sun and sunburn.
Know your ABCDEMost moles on a person's body look similar to one another. A mole or freckle that looks different from the others or that has a diameter larger than 6mm or any characteristics of the ABCDE of melanoma should be checked by a doctor. And melanomas that are detected at a thinner stage can be treated more successfully than thick ones that have grown deeper into the skin. The ABCDE highlights important characteristics to consider when examining your moles or other skin growths.
Screening for skin cancerDoctors say it is important to regularly check your own skin for anything unusual, like a mole that’s grown bigger or changed colour. Know your ABCDE: ‘A’ is for asymmetryAsymmetry means one half of a mole does not match the other half.
When checking your moles or freckles, draw an imaginary line through the middle and compare the two halves. Know your ABCDE: ‘B’ is for borderIf the border or edges of the mole are ragged, blurred or irregular, ask your doctor to check it. High blood pressure can lead to severe complications without any prior symptoms, including an aneurysm.
Know your ABCDE: 'C' is for colourA mole that does not have the same colour throughout or has shades of tan, brown, black, blue, white or red is suspicious. When it is, you reduce your risk of complications such as heart disease, stroke and kidney failure.
Finding out you have high blood pressure and then working with your doctor to manage it can pay huge health dividends. Know your ABCDE: 'D' is for diameterA mole is suspicious if the diameter is larger than 6mm. The first (systolic) is the pressure of your blood against your artery walls when the heart beats. Know your ABCDE: ‘E’ is for evolutionA mole that is evolving – shrinking, growing larger, changing colour, begins to itch or bleed – should be checked  If a portion of the mole appears elevated or raised from the skin, ask your doctor to check it.
Cholesterol levelsA high level of LDL cholesterol is a major factor that increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis - hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by plaque (seen here in orange) building up inside your arteries.
Check the 'hidden' areas: between fingers and toes, the groins, soles of the feet, the backs of the knees.
Lifestyle changes and medication can lower your risk of atherosclerosis and of cardiovascular disease. Determining cholesterol levelsDoctors screen for problems with cholesterol by using a fasting blood lipid test. It’s a blood test that tells you your levels of total cholesterol, LDL “bad” cholesterol, HDL “good” cholesterol, and triglyceride (blood fat). Pay special attention to moles if you're a teenager, pregnant or going through the menopause – times when your hormones may be surging.
Anyone can ask for a cholesterol test, but this is especially important if you are over 40 or have risk factors such as heart disease, are overweight, have high blood pressure, diabetes or a family history of high cholesterol or of cardiovascular disease. How are moles evaluated?If you find a mole or spot that has any ABCDE signs of possible melanoma – or one that's tender, itching, oozing, scaly, doesn't heal or has redness or swelling beyond the mole – seek medical advice.
Type 2 diabetesMore than 3 million people in the UK are diagnosed with diabetes and many more have the condition but are unaware of it. Diabetes can lead to complications such as heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, blindness from damage to the retina (shown here) and nerve damage. If found to be cancerous, the entire mole and a rim of normal skin round it will be removed and the wound closed with stitches.
However, especially when found early, diabetes can be controlled with diet, exercise, weight loss and medication when appropriate, and the risk of complications reduced. Additional treatment may be needed An introduction to skin cancerMalignant melanoma, especially in the later stages, is serious and treatment is difficult.
Screening for type 2 diabetesA fasting blood glucose test is most often used to screen for diabetes and prediabetes.
A vial of blood is taken after you’ve fasted at least eight hours and used to determine your blood sugar level. Diabetes screening is typically offered if your GP suspects you may be at risk of having diabetes. People who've had skin cancer once are at risk of getting it again; they should have regular checkups as advised by their specialist. MelanomaMelanoma is not as common as other types of skin cancer, but it's the most serious and potentially deadly. It’s in the blood and other body secretions of infected individuals, even when there are no symptoms. It spreads from one person to another when blood or these secretions come into contact with the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes or a break in the skin.
Squamous cell carcinomaThis non-melanoma skin cancer may appear as a firm red nodule, a scaly growth that bleeds or develops a crust, or a sore that doesn't heal. There is still no cure or vaccine, but treatment with anti-viral medications may help the body's immune system fight the virus. It most often occurs on the nose, forehead, ears, lower lip, hands and other areas of the body exposed to the sun. Bowen's diseaseBowen's disease is also called squamous cell carcinoma 'in situ.' It is a type of skin cancer that spreads outwards on the surface of the skin. By contrast, 'invasive' squamous cell carcinomas can grow inwards and spread to the interior of the body.
Bowen's disease looks like scaly, reddish patches that may be crusted; it may be mistaken for rashes, eczema, fungus or psoriasis. Basal cell carcinomaBasal cell carcinoma is the most common and easiest to treat skin cancer. If you think you may have been exposed to HIV, ask your GP or sexual health clinic about the tests.
Basal cell tumours can take on many forms, including a pearly white or waxy bump, often with visible blood vessels, on the ears, neck or face.
Bowel cancerBowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK with more than 41,000 new cases diagnosed every year.
Tumours can also appear as a flat, scaly, flesh-coloured or brown patch on the back or chest, or more rarely, a white, waxy scar. The majority of colon (bowel) cancers develop from colon polyps that are growths on the inner surface of the colon. But it doesn't explain skin cancers that develop on skin that isn't usually exposed to sunlight. Screening for bowel cancerIn 2006 the NHS began a bowel cancer screening programme using stool samples. It's offered to everyone aged between 60 and 69, every two years, and is being extended to include those aged 70-75. For anyone at high risk, for example with a family history of bowel cancer, a colonoscopy can be performed. Apply sunscreen liberally before going outside (don't forget the lips and ears!), wear a hat and sunglasses and cover up with clothing. And remember, if you notice changes to your skin such as a new growth, a mole changing appearance, or a sore that won't heal, seek medical advice promptly.
A similar alternative is a flexible sigmoidoscopy that examines only the lower part of the colon. GlaucomaGlaucoma is a condition that can result in blindness due to damage to the optic nerve. There is good evidence that treating elevated eye pressure in glaucoma can prevent blindness. Glaucoma screeningIt is important to have regular eye tests with an optician so that conditions like glaucoma can be picked up.
People with a higher risk of glaucoma should be checked from the age of 30 -- these include people with a family history of glaucoma.
Check-ups with an optician are often not free of charge, unless you are in a group entitled to free tests, such as people over 60 or those with conditions such as glaucoma or diabetes.
Importance of health screeningBeing proactive and discussing screening tests with your doctor makes good health sense.
Some tests, such as a cervical screening test, should be a routine part of every woman’s health care.
Appropriate screening won’t always prevent a disease, but it can identify a disease early enough to give you the best chance of overcoming it.



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