28.04.2016

Personalised medicine cancer uk jobs

Without agricultural chemicals, there would be a lot less food in the world, but with them, water and soil are slowly getting poisoned. The Green Revolution may have saved a billion people from starvation, according to common wisdom, but the expansion of agricultural technology came at a price: A sharp increase in the use of pesticides and chemicals. But with technology developed at the Weizmann Institute, and commercialized by Israeli start-up Catalyst AgTech, we may be able to avoid finding out what those long-term consequences are. Some chemicals just sort of “sit there,” but many are actually harmful, to plants, animals, and humans. The technology was developed at the Weizmann Institute by Professors Brian Berkowitz and Ishai Dror Ph.D, and is patented. You hereby accept The Times of Israel Terms of Use and Privacy Policy, and you agree to receive the latest news & offers from The Times of Israel and its partners or ad sponsors. Okayama University medical researchers seek partners to commercialize their clinically proven non-invasive fluorescence virus-guided capture system of human colorectal circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood samples for genetic testing.
The research is led by Professor Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and was published in Gut May 2014. The key factor in capturing extremely low quantities of live CTCs from millions of background blood leukocytes is targeting the high telomerase activity of malignant tumor cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing telomerase specific replication adenovirus (OBP-401, TelomeScan). Notably, Professor Fujiwara and colleagues have previously reported on clinical tests on OBP-401 based GFP labelling to detect live CTCs in gasterointestinal and ovarian cancers.
Here, Professor Fujiwara and his team show that their OBP-401 based CTC capture system enables the monitoring of genetic mutations in both epithelial and mesenchymal types of CTCs, thereby opening up the possibility of a new non-invasive companion diagnostic method for genetic testing and personalized medicine.
In 1869 Thomas Ashworth first reported the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with advanced cancer in his paper entitled: "A case of cancer in which cells similar to those in the tumors were seen in the blood after death". However, it is challenging to detect CTCs because there are very small quantities of CTCs in the bloodstream.


Importantly, recent research has shown the existence of heterogeneous CTCs that have both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. Another important fact is that currently, targeted cancer treatment for individual patients is carried out by analysis of primary tumors.
So there is the need for non-invasive methods capable of detecting CTCs independent of the epithelial cell marker.
Tumor cells circulating within a patient's bloodstream can carry cancer from a primary tumor site to distant sites of the body, spreading the disease. Tumor cells in bone marrow of early breast cancer patients predict a higher risk of relapse as well as poorer survival, but bone marrow biopsy is an invasive and painful procedure. All's not fair in love and glucose intolerance - overweight men are more prone to get type 2 diabetes than are overweight women. Mitochondria are the engines that drive cellular life, but these complex machines are vulnerable to a wide range of breakdowns, and hundreds of their component parts remain a functional mystery. A handful of large studies of cancer risk factors have found that working the night shift, as nearly 15 percent of Americans do, boosts the chances of developing cancer. Health experts have long believed that sickle cell gene variants, which occur in about 1 in 13 African-Americans, increase the risk of premature death, even when people carry only a single copy of the variant. These technologies have made it possible for farmers to grow the food needed for an ever-growing population, but they have wreaked havoc on the environment, with chemicals seeping into the groundwater and entering the food chain — setting off who-knows-what consequences in the long-term. In what industry professionals have told him is a “game-changing technology,” Shalom Nachshon, CEO of Catalyst AgTech, is hopeful that the work his company is doing will rid the environment of chemicals and pesticides that otherwise could “hang around” in water and soil for hundreds, or even thousands, of years. B12, for example, is a catalyst that Nachshon and his scientific team have been experimenting with.
Catalyst AgTech is licensing the technology and has the rights to commercialize and sell it.


This form of non-invasive companion diagnostics is important for personalized targeted cancer therapy. The so-called CellSearch system is widely used to detect CTCs, where antibodies are used to target the major epithelial cell surface marker known as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). This discovery has led to demand for the development of CTC capture systems that are able to detect CTCs irrespective of the epithelial cell marker for cancer treatment with molecularly targeted drugs. The difficulties with this approach are that the primary tumors contain very few cells that cause metastasis or reoccurrence, and samples for analysis are obtained by needle core biopsies or surgical removal of tumor tissuea€”which are invasive procedures and prohibit the extraction of tissue from locations inaccessible by surgery.
As Nachshon explains, “Based on technology developed at the Weizmann Institute, we are developing catalysts that will increase the speed of a molecule’s destruction.
Instead of hanging around in soil and groundwater, chemical molecules get broken down and rendered inert within days,” Nachshon said. We add the B12 to a specific pesticide, and when it hits a certain set of conditions in the ground, the catalyst accelerates the breakdown of the molecules,” said Nachshon. Matching up the catalyst and chemical is a long, difficult process, said Nachshon – but he and his Catalyst AgTech staff are up to the task. He will be accompanying the The Trendlines Group on a five-city roadshow in the US at the end of April, speaking to investors in New York, Detroit.



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