20.08.2015

New prostate cancer treatment vaccine

The treatment landscape of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has been dramatically changed over the past years with the approval of several new drugs for clinical use. Over the past decade, there have been major advances in the management of metastatic prostate cancer, based on growing knowledge of biologic mechanisms of prostate cancer proliferation and survival.
Since the discovery by Huggins and Hodges in 1941 that prostate cancer is an androgen-dependent disease,[2] the mainstay of therapy for advanced disease has been androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Depletion of androgens, either surgically or medically, to produce a castrate state is the standard first-line treatment. The critical steps in androgen biosynthesis include CYP17 enzyme complex conversion of pregnenolone-like steroids into androgens and the conversion of testosterone and other steroids into 5 ?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5 ?-reductase and other enzymes, respectively. Scientists have developed a blood test that can identify key mutations driving resistance to a widely used prostate cancer drug, and identify in advance patients who will not respond to treatment.
The new research paves the way for information from a blood test to inform prostate cancer treatment in future, with only those patients whose cancers are free of resistance mutations taking the drug, abiraterone. The study is also a proof of principle that tests for cancer DNA in the bloodstream can be used to detect drug resistance mutations - allowing patients who will not benefit from one drug to be given an alternative treatment instead. Researchers at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, and the University of Trento, Italy, analysed 274 blood samples from 97 patients using state-of-the-art DNA sequencing techniques.
They found that mutations in a gene called the androgen receptor (AR) predicted resistance to the prostate cancer drug abiraterone, and that patients with these mutations had poorer survival.
The new study is published in Science Translational Medicine today, and was funded by Cancer Research UK, Prostate Cancer UK, the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), and the University of Trento.
Abiraterone, which was discovered at the ICR, is now standard treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer - but while it is highly effective in many patients, 30-60% do not respond.
So researchers have been searching for a marker that will help predict in advance which men will benefit from the drug, and who should be given a different treatment. Researchers discovered that men who harbour either a specific mutation or an increase in the number of copies of the AR gene, were 7.8 times less likely to have a reduction of more than 90% in their PSA levels, a widely used test to monitor the response of prostate cancer. The study also found that in about 15% of men given abiraterone who did not have either mutation before starting treatment, this was acquired as the drug stopped working and appeared in the bloodstream several months before patients developed any symptoms. Blood tests are particularly valuable in cancer patients because biopsies are often difficult to perform and can carry risks. Pioneering prostate cancer drug abiraterone significantly extends the lives of men with advanced prostate cancer if given before chemotherapy, the results of a major phase III clinical trial have shown. A blood test that measures the number of cells shed from prostate tumours into the bloodstream can act as an early warning sign that treatment is not working, a major new study shows. Scientists have developed a blood test for breast cancer able to identify which patients will suffer a relapse after treatment, months before tumours are visible on hospital scans.
A pioneering drug developed to treat women with inherited cancers can also benefit men with advanced prostate cancer, a major new clinical trial concludes.
Cancer is a disease of our genes - yet our understanding of how our genetic makeup affects our risk of cancer is still rudimentary. Here's one more reason to consider cutting back on the soda: drinking too many sugary drinks on a daily basis has been linked to gallbladder cancer. Scientists at Lancaster University have shed light on the metabolic switch observed in abnormal cells like cancer.
There has been a significant increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated oropharyngeal cancer in the United States. There has been a remarkable shift in the epidemiology of head and neck cancer in this country over the past 30 years. Squamous cell cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract accounts for more than 550,000 cancer cases, or 5% of cancer cases, worldwide each year.[3] It is endemic in countries such as India and Brazil where tobacco consumption is the cultural norm.
The demographic and risk profiles of HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC patients clearly differ.[8] Thus, an HPV-positive patient with HNSCC is more likely to have better dentition, less or no tobacco or alcohol use, greater marijuana use, and greater numbers of oral sex partners than an HPV-negative patient. By the year 2020, the annual number of cases of HPV-OPSCC is projected to outnumber the cases of HPV-mediated cervical cancer in the United States.[1] The emergence of HPV-OPSCC has been deemed an epidemic of our time. HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world.[9] HPV may be transmitted by any type of sexual activity.
HPV-infected persons remain oblivious to the infection, as there are no associated signs or symptoms. HPV is a small DNA virus that is capable of infecting human keratinocytes of the skin and mucous membranes.
Of all potential sites of head and neck cancer, the palatine and lingual tonsils are preferentially targeted by HPV. There were an estimated 14.1 million cancer cases around the world in 2012, according to the World Cancer Research Fund International.
Wikipedia aflatoxin entry states aflatoxin eaten by cows can transfer to those who eat its meat. Now, compare to natural red meat from animals who ate and leisured as they were meant to, including cows.. 100% pastured, grass fed, never-fed-grain bears little resemblance to factory beef, or elk, or deer.
Half the nations of the world don’t even get people in to be diagnosed let alone treated. You show incredibly bad third world nations in Africa where people die daily from malnutrition as having the lowest cancer rates and we are to use that information as if it is of some importance? In a highly developed society with significant resources available to en educated population, one would hope diagnosis and treatment would be at very high levels if not for the availability of those procedures.
Came back after doing some more research, this time at the World Cancer Research Fund International.


Sun Light has proven to be a major factor, patients generally have a better prognosis during the summer than the winter winter. That is the culprit, and the only way you’ll avoid it is by sticking to a diet in red meat, chicken, fish, veggies, nuts and seeds, with fruit sparingly. There is a reason why Japan is so low on the list in cancer yet have long lives; their traditional diets are basically absent of fructose.
Cancer is often considered a disease of affluence, but about 70% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Cancer occurs mainly in old age and as such those countries with low cancer rates are the ones where the people die before they reach the cancer age. One top of that poorer countries like Niger, Bhutan and Gambia do not have enough of qualified doctors to make the diagnosis of cancer and most types of cancer needs sophisticated diagnostic personnel and equipment to facilitate the diagnosis. These include androgen axis–targeted therapy and novel drugs with different mechanisms of action, including immunotherapy (sipuleucel-T), radiopharmaceuticals (radium-223), and chemotherapy (cabazitaxel). Unfortunately, after a variable period of time on ADT, patients eventually progress to the lethal form of prostate cancer in the setting of castrate levels of testosterone. The human AR gene is a steroid hormone receptor found in both benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells.
The CYP17 enzyme complex (17 ?-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase) is a member of the cytochrome P450 family, expressed in testicular, adrenal, and normal prostatic tissue, as well as in prostate cancer cells. Solid tumor masses may shed (1) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA), (2) apoptotic circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or (3) intact CTCs into the circulation. Even when biopsies are possible, they only give a snapshot of cancer genetics in a small specific area, whereas blood tests can give information that is more representative of multiple different tumours around the body. We're delighted to have developed a test that appears to predict very accurately whether a patient will respond to abiraterone, and that it can be performed on blood samples - removing the need to take a biopsy.
But we don't stop at taking a new treatment like abiraterone to patients - it's also essential to continue to conduct research on these new drugs, to make sure they are being used as effectively as possible. This is especially true as a blood-based test gives us a global picture of the patient's tumor burden rather than a focal snapshot as with a standard biopsy.
When the clock is ticking for a man with advanced prostate cancer, finding out early that his treatment needs changing can not only save precious time, but can also help avoid unpleasant side effects from a treatment that longer works for him.
While exposure to chemical mutagens such as tobacco and alcohol remains the most common risk factor for squamous cell cancers of the aerodigestive tract, a rapidly expanding subset of head and neck cancers are acquired through human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
Decreasing tobacco consumption in the United States has led to an overall decline in the incidence of head and neck cancers over the past 3 decades.[4,5] This downward trend is noted for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, and hypopharynx, since tobacco use remains the primary risk factor for cancers in these sites. Furthermore, these risk associations have shown a very strong dose effect, again emphasizing the distinct risk profile of HPV-positive HNSCC patients.
Although there are more than 100 subtypes of HPV, HPV 16 accounts for 90% of all HPV-related head and neck cancers.[17] HPV encodes several genes that are important in tumorigenesis. Of those cases, the United States had the sixth highest number of new diagnoses, with 318 cases per 100,000 people. Nice to know that those country where cancer rate is lowest, has low standard quality of living or the majority of citizens are middle-class while most country where cancer rate is highest are 1st-world country where the majority of citizen has highest standard of living which are envied by people from 3rd-world countries. The upside-down food pyramid diet guidelines have closely correlated to the exploding chronic disease rates in this country. Grilled meat, seasonal vegetables, salads and various sauces are some of the foods consumed. Typical Nigerien meals consist of a starch (rice being the most popular) paired with a sauce or stew.
Think about when you were younger and if you can ever remember hearing of so many cancer cases on the news ? It’s a shame scientists have discovered it so late, something which was obvious to me since I was a teenager. After lengthy research she came up with over 60 percent of cancers where coursed by outside influence for example vehicle exhaust fumes general pollutions in the atmosphere to much sun uv work environments aircraft pollution. Well done people you all have done what billions of dollars and hundreds of medical scientists couldn’t do.
This data for this infographic was sourced from the International Agency for Research on Cancer GLOBOCAN project. Based on the growing knowledge that the main driver for patients progressing on standard androgen deprivation therapy is persistent activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis, new drugs were developed and demonstrated significant efficacy in recent clinical trials, leading to the approval of abiraterone and enzalutamide in several countries. It follows that maintaining a patient in a state with persistent disease but with no symptoms and no progression, such as the state of a rising PSA with no evidence of metastatic disease, can be tantamount to cure.
Notably, this approach does not fully deplete androgens within the tumor itself, nor does it affect adrenal androgen synthesis. In addition, ctDNA and ctRNA may enter the bloodstream after apoptosis of circulating and noncirculating tumor cells (4). The majority of the patients present with asymptomatic, persistent neck masses despite antibiotic therapy.
The oropharynx is uniquely susceptible to HPV, and now up to 70% of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States are HPV-mediated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (HPV-OPSCCs).[1,2] HPV-OPSCC is fundamentally distinct (Table 1). Cancer feeds on sugar, which is also in fruit, which is seemingly not that beneficial to your healh as they caimed it to be. Also polluted foods fruits and vegetables use of pesticides smoking cigarettes full of chemicals alcohol in particular excessive beer drinking which is now known to cause colon cancer. That is the health care system in Denmark is better at detecting cancer than say the health care system in Nigeria. In this article, we review the most recent advances in AR-directed therapies for CRPC, promising new agents under development, cross-resistance, and mechanisms of resistance for the new-generation AR-targeted agents.


What follows is a period of stability during which the tumor does not proliferate and PSA levels do not change. An awareness of this condition and a high degree of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis.HPV-mediated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (HPV-OPSCCs) are unique biologically and clinically, and affected patients enjoy better outcomes with existing standard therapies than do patients with OPSCC mediated by tobacco exposure. Patients with HPV-OPSCC are frequently younger than those with tobacco-mediated oropharyngeal cancer and experience significantly better outcomes with current standard therapies. It is unknown why chronic infections develop in a small subset of the population that later progress to HPV-OPSCC.
The E6 oncoprotein interferes with the function of tumor-suppressor protein p53 through ubiquitin-mediated p53 degradation. We’re all packed in cities, taught to stress out over anything, eating crap full of pesticides and such, breathing polluted air.
Get real, the US is in the top ten, so why so many cancer patients, talking into account there are medical services in every single state? There are obviously some countries where there is no such modern cancer detection facilities. Unfortunately, after a variable period of time, AR reactivation occurs, PSA levels rise, and tumor proliferation resumes. The p16 protein is usually overexpressed in HPV-OPSCC, and its detection on immunohistochemistry is a reliable surrogate marker for this disease.
Thus, there is current impetus for treatment deintensification strategies that maintain optimal cancer outcomes, yet lessen treatment-related side effects. An effective screening test for early detection of HPV-OPSCC has not yet been defined, and no validated screening test is available. E7 binds to the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene and inhibits its ability to repress the expressions of replication enzyme genes, thus pushing the cell cycle forward.[18] Late proteins L1 and L2 determine the virus subtype and are structural capsid proteins that encapsulate the amplified viral genomes. Staple foods include millet, rice, cassava, sorghum, maize and beans.[1][2] Couscous is saved for special occasions.
Henceforth, what needs to be addressed is the spiking cancer rates and their effective control and prevention all over the world.
In this review, we discuss current paradigms in the diagnosis and management of HPV-OPSCC, and we emphasize pertinent research questions to investigate going forward, including whether to deintensify treatment in these patients.
The difficulty in screening for OPSCC relates to the fact that most of these cancers originate deep in the crypts of the tonsils, which are inaccessible to simple “Pap smear equivalents” that can be readily performed in anatomic areas such as the anus or cervix. And dont have blind trust in every scientist or every international organization out there, they are not God and many of these structures are supported by corporations.
My daughter was diagnosed with a type of leukemia that HAS BEEN linked to chemicals used in farming.
Maybe they are trying to find a cure when they should be looking at preventative shots against the cancer from attacking peoples systems, after all if it is coming from the foods we eat, than protect us from it ! The need of the hour is to ascertain the risk factors and creating awareness about screening tests.
A byproduct of HPV E7–mediated retinoblastoma inhibition is overexpression of p16 protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. It’s what happens when the DNA in a cell gets corrupted in a specific way and then replicated instead of repaired, and the cells grow out of control. There are however a lot of hospitals out there encashing and exploiting the rise in cancer.
Your body should function better at repairing broken DNA and eliminating these alien cells, but as we age the repair processes of the body slowly break down. I told her try a herbalist, she did, went in to remission, it became active, so she went back to the treatment, eight years later, she is fine. I have been made to remain dreaded of the disease as, i know the conditions here in India and i myself have many relatives who suffered from cancer. Children with the aging disease progeria suffer from all the diseases we attribute to aging, from liver spots to heart disease, stroke, and cancer.
Although we will soon cure many forms of cancer with new viral treatment modalities, it is important to remember that we all suffer from the same genetic disease: physical aging. All these chemically enhanced altered foods are allowed on the market today and then the injected chemicals into our animals, and sometimes even cloning our livestock, it has really got to make people suspicious about everyone and everything when it comes to our food and health. Most of our efforts should go into halting and reversing that disease, whether based on the free radical theoru or the neuro endocrine theory or other models.
Cancsr cells, although they have short telomeres, are called immortal cells because they defy the Hayflick limit and can replicate and live on forever. Fast forward to now, youngest brother in law, has the same cancer and he was already told it had spread all over his body and his chances are slim. This is largely due to the production of telomerase, which protects the telomeres from free radical damage.
Herbal treatment, change in diet to organic and cook from scratch, VS treatment at one of the best known and respected clinics. As to me, since I changed to organic and cook my own stuff (much which I also grow) at 69, I haven’t been sick since 1999.



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