14.08.2015

New liver cancer treatment 2014 rotten

Some patients of liver cancer may want to known the survival rate of liver cancer patients so as to get the best possible treatment option, while others may not want to know them to avoid psychological problems. Liver cancer is categorized as, localized wherein only one or two tumors can be found in any lobe of the liver (includes stage I and certain stage II cancers); regional liver cancer refers to cancer which has spread to the other lobe and to nearby lymph nodes (includes certain stage II, all stage III, and stage IVA cancers) and distant liver cancer refers to the stage IVB, wherein the cancer has spread to other tissues and has metastasized.
Liver cancer is prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region which accounts for up to 80% of the world’s total liver cancer cases. New therapies and more efficacious treatment combinations and approaches are continually being developed for liver cancer.
The heart of any clinical cancer program is the multi-disciplinary clinic and tumour board discussions. Patients attending the clinic may be seen by one or more of the relevant specialists at the same session where appropriate. The CLCC as part of the comprehensive NCCS set-up is able to offer patients the benefits of its wealth of experience, all the latest scientific breakthroughs and access to clinical trials of new treatments. Our specialists hold daily consultation sessions from Mondays to Fridays, 8 am to 6 pm, at National Cancer Centre Singapore SOC D Clinic, Level 2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Liver Resection Versus Transplantation for Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma within the Milan Criteria. Multicenter Phase II Study of Sequential Radioembolization-Sorafenib Therapy for Inoperable Hepatocellular Carcinoma .
Survival and Pattern of Tumor Progression with Yttrium-90 Microsphere Radioembolization in Predominantly Hepatitis B Asian Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma . Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis: The Emerging Role for Radioembolization Using Yttrium-90. Systematic Review of Outcomes of Liver Resection for Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma within the Milan Criteria. Activity of Thalidomide and Capecitabine in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Microvascular Invasion Is a Better Predictor of Tumor Recurrence and Overall Survival Following Surgical Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Compared to the Milan Criteria .
Randomised Double-Blind Trial of Megestrol Acetate Vs Placebo in Treatment-Naive Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. A Novel Approach to Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using a Phosphorous32 (32p) Brachytherapy Delivery Device—a First-in-Man Study . High-Dose Tamoxifen in the Treatment of Inoperable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Deep Sequencing of the Hepatitis B Virus in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Reveals Enriched Integration Events, Structural Alterations and Sequence Variations.
Altered Binding Site Selection of P53 Transcription Cassettes by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein.
Dovitinib demonstrates antitumor and antimetastatic activitiesin xenograft models of hepatocellular carcinoma. Azd6244 Enhances the Anti-Tumor Activity of Sorafenib in Ectopic and Orthotopic Models of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).
Lethal-7 Is Down-Regulated by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein and Targets Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3. Sorafenib and Rapamycin Induce Growth Suppression in Mouse Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
RAD001 (everolimus) inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Sunitinib (Sutent, Su11248) Suppresses Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Xenograft Models of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Effective Inhibition of Xenografts of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hepg2) by Rapamycin and Bevacizumab in an Intrahepatic Model.
Cirrhosis is a serious condition where normal liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue (fibrosis).
Liver spots, also known as age spots and solar lentigines, are flat, brown, gray or black spots that generally occur on the face, shoulders, hands and arms.
The colored patches that appear on the face and other areas of the body are generally not serious and can be commonly seen in individuals with fair skin.
Even though liver spots do not require treatment, one may remove or lighten them with the use of skin bleaching products, for cosmetic reasons and since they can appear on the face. Individuals with a fair complexion are normally prone to develop liver spots, but people with darker skin can develop them as well. Liver spots are caused due to exposure to UV or ultraviolet light from the sun over a period of several years. The epidermis or the upper layer of the skin contains a pigment known as melanin, which gives the skin its color. Frequent and persistent exposure to the sun on certain parts of the skin results in the ‘clumping’ or excessive manufacture of melanin in higher concentrations in those areas, leading to the formation of liver spots.
A genetic predisposition to liver spots also places one at a greater vulnerability to develop liver spots as compared to others. Retinoids, prescription bleaching creams and mild steroids can be use to clear the liver spots over a period of many months. Chemical peel involves application of an acid to burn the epidermis so as to reach the liver spots. Cryotherapy or freezing involves the use of liquid nitrogen or other freezing substances to destroy the additional pigment. The melanin manufacturing cells can be destroyed via laser therapy and the skin remains undamaged. Dermabrasion involves removal of the surface of the affected skin with a rapidly rotating brush. Stage 0 colon cancer may be treated with a local exicision of the lesion, often via a colonoscopy.
Almost all patients with stage III colon cancer, after surgery, should receive chemotherapy (adjuvant chemotherapy) with a drug known as 5-fluorouracil given for approximately 8 months. Chemotherapy is also used for patients with stage IV disease in order to shrink the tumor, lengthen life, and improve quality of life. Radiation therapy is occasionally used in patients with colon cancer, but this is relatively uncommon. Stages of colorectal cancer - The staging of a carcinoma has to do with the size of the tumor, and the degree to which it has penetrated.
This page tells you about cancer that has spread to the liver from another part of the body. Tests for secondary liver cancer include a blood test to check how well your liver is working (a liver function test). The aim of treatment for secondary liver cancers may be to try and get rid of the cancer, or to control your cancer and symptoms for some time.
Research is going on all the time into improving treatments for secondary liver cancer and helping people to cope with symptoms.
On this page there is information about secondary liver cancer, treatment, and coping, including where you can get help and support. Finding out about your cancer and your treatment options can help you to feel more in control and better able to cope. You will need to get information from your own specialist to understand what the diagnosis means for you. Sometimes a secondary cancer is picked up before it causes symptoms, during tests to diagnose your primary cancer. If you have surgery you may have chemotherapy or biological therapy before or after the operation.
Surgery for secondary liver cancer is a very specialised treatment and you need to have the operation at a specialist liver surgery centre.
Chemoembolisation involves giving a chemotherapy drug into an artery along with an oily liquid or an absorbable gelatin sponge. Your doctor may suggest biological therapy if it is suitable for your particular type of primary cancer.


The microspheres contain a radioactive substance which gives a dose of radiation to the tumour. The radiation from the microspheres damages the tumours’ blood supply, so the tumours can’t get the nutrients they need.
The microspheres give off radiation to an area only 2 to 3mm on average around where they are trapped. All the treatments above can help to control symptoms by shrinking or removing the liver tumours. Your doctor can drain the fluid from the abdomen by putting a needle in and draining the fluid through a tube.
Yellowing of your skin (jaundice) can happen if the cancer is affecting a large area of your liver. If you have a blockage in your bile duct you may be able to have a small tube (stent) put in to your bile duct to relieve it. It is common in any family for some people to want to ask difficult questions and some not.
Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666) and the Isle of Man (1103). The five year survival rates for the patients indicate that percentage of individuals who live for at least five years after the diagnosis of liver cancer. Those who have successfully removed the cancerous tumors have an increased survival rate of nearly fifty percent. The treatment of liver cancer is particularly complex as it is a very heterogeneous disease and requires significant medical expertise to achieve optimal clinical outcome. The choice of the best treatment for an individual patient depends on many factors including the stage of the cancer, the general health of the patient and the availability of expertise and therapeutics. The Comprehensive Liver Cancer Clinic (CLCC) at the National Cancer Center Singapore brings all the different specialists together to work around the patient.
Each case is different and hence the multi-disciplinary team will comprehensively assess the patient’s disease and treatment needs. Goh, Anthony Soon-Whatt, Alexander Yaw-Fui Chung, Richard Houa-Gong Lo, Te-Neng Lau, Sidney Wing-Kwong Yu, May Chng, Somanesan Satchithanantham, Susan Li-Er Loong, David Chee-Eng Ng, Beng-Choo Lim, Stephen Connor, and Pierce Kah-Hoe Chow. Huynh H, Ngo VC, Koong HN, Poon D, Choo SP, Thng CH, Chow P, Ong HS, Chung A, Soo K.C J Cell Mol Med.
It is however best to prevent liver spots by using sunscreen and avoid excessive exposure to sun and thus ensure that the skin maintains the youthful and vibrant appearance. However, liver spots that have changed in appearance or are darker than usual have to be checked by a doctor to verify whether it is melanoma (skin cancer) or not. The manufacture of melanin is hastened by ultraviolet light, resulting in the development of a tan that shield the deeper layers of the skin from being exposed to ultraviolet light.
However, individuals who have a history of sunburn or intense and frequent cases of sun exposure, and those with fair or light colored skin are at greater risk to develop liver spots as compared with others. In case, facial liver spots are unsightly to look at, then one may undergo treatment to lighten or remove them. Additionally, one needs to use sun protection measures such as sunscreen with an SPF of 30.
Irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil are the two most commonly used drugs, given either individually or in combination. When the tumor is small and has not penetrated the mucosal layer, it is said to be stage I cancer. DoctorNDTV accepts no responsibility for the content or accuracy of such material and does not endorse or subscribe to the content. Unnecessary panic induces stress in people that complicates the otherwise manageable situation.
However for monitoring inter drug effects of chemicals, values in leaves of papaya as per Dr. If some cells break away from the primary cancer and move to another part of the body they can form another tumour – a secondary cancer. Cancer Research UK supports a lot of UK laboratory research into cancer and also supports many UK and international clinical trials. If some cells break away from the primary cancer, they can move through the bloodstream or lymph system and spread to another part of the body, where they can form a new tumour. So, for example, if your cancer started in your bowel and has spread to your liver, the bowel cells have first become cancerous, then spread from the bowel tumour and formed another tumour in your liver. It depends on where the cancer first started and whether it has spread anywhere else in the body.
Rarely, the first symptom people have is from the secondary liver tumour rather than the primary cancer.
The first symptoms of a secondary liver cancer are usually feeling unwell and being very tired. Because there is a risk of bleeding afterwards, your doctors and nurses will want to keep a close check on you.
If the first type of chemotherapy you have (called 1st line treatment) doesn't control your cancer, you can usually have a different type of chemotherapy (2nd line treatment).
You have this type of chemotherapy given through a small tube (catheter) put into the main artery leading to the liver. You can find out whether biological therapies are suitable for your type of primary cancer by going to the section about your cancer type. Doctors don’t use it as a treatment very often for cancers in the liver, because normal liver tissue is very sensitive to it. So extremes of temperature may affect you more than usual and you may feel very hot or very cold. Ask your specialist, GP or hospital nurse about referral to a symptom control nurse (sometimes called palliative care nurses or home care nurses).
Or you can contact the Cancer Research UK information nurses to talk your questions and worries through with them.
Patients who have treated early stage cancers with a liver transplant have a sixty to seventy percent five year survival rate. As with many other complex cancers, the best outcome with liver cancer occurs when the patient is looked after by a multi-disciplinary team of specialists with individual expertise in the different modalities of treatment relevant to liver cancer. The team then creates a consensus or joint treatment plan tailored for the patient based on the latest scientific evidence and the combined clinical experience of the team.
However, as the function of the liver gradually becomes worse, serious problems can develop. Liver spots can be commonly found to occur in individuals over the age of forty years, but can affect younger adults as well.
Melanin is present in the upper layer of the skin and hence all treatments to correct liver spots have to penetrate the epidermis. For stages I, II, and III cancer, removal of a segment of colon containing the tumor and reattachment of the colon is necessary. There is some debate as to whether patients with stage II colon cancer should receive chemotherapy after surgery and patients should discuss this with their oncologist.
A new drug, oxaliplatin, is also useful in these patients, but has not yet been approved by the FDA. Commonly, stomach cancer begins in the mucosa, which is the innermost layer of the stomach that generates stomach acid and digestive enzymes.Stomach cancer develops at a gradual pace over the course of many years.
Duke's - Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, major D1-piperideine alkaloids 1300-1500ppm, dehydrocarpaines I and II - 1000ppm reported to be more potent than carpaine 150-4000ppm and pseudocarpaine 100ppm, which act on the heart and respiration like digitalis, but are destroyed by heat. This is different from having a cancer that first started in the liver (a primary liver cancer).
Most people have already had treatment for a primary cancer and it can feel very unfair to have to cope with cancer a second time. It is usually easier to deal with one issue at a time rather than trying to sort everything out at once. These symptoms are common in other conditions so remember that they could well be due to something else.


For other people it is to control the cancer and symptoms for some time.This is called palliative treatment. So you are likely to go to intensive care or a high dependency unit for 24 hours immediately after your operation.
And we also have specific information about hormone therapy for your type of cancer in our cancer type sections.
Your doctor inserts a thin tube called a catheter into the hepatic artery that supplies blood to the liver. The proteins help to keep fluid in the blood and stop it from leaking out into the tissues. Doctors can sometimes put an internal tube under the skin of the abdomen to permanently drain the fluid away. There are different types of painkiller and sometimes you have to try different ones before you find one that works for you. These specialist nurses can work with you and your doctor to help control your cancer symptoms and improve your physical well being.
It is likely that you will have all sorts of questions that are difficult to ask and also difficult to answer. The number is freephone 0808 800 4040 and the lines are open from 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday. You may need to give your doctor permission to talk to your next of kin or other family members alone. All survival-rates data is based on the outcome of patients who have been treated for liver cancer. In the UK, the two common causes of cirrhosis are heavy alcohol drinking and hepatitis C infection. Blood - sugar & cholesterol and symptoms for allergies against pollens, amongst others, must be periodically checked. Support to help you cope is available at the hospital, from your GP and specialist nurses, and from support groups and online forums. Sometimes the chemotherapy is given continuously for a period of time through a small pump put near the liver.
Your hospital or cancer organisations can offer emotional support or practical help, such as dealing with money matters. Or if you are a relative you may need to give the person with cancer the space to talk to the doctor on their own. However, this is just a rough estimate and cannot be universally applied to all individuals as each liver cancer case is unique in itself. The stomach is shaped like the letter J and it serves as a food reservoir and an initiator of the digestive process.
This is important because the primary cancer tells your doctor which type of treatment you need. If the tubes that drain bile from the liver are blocked by secondary cancer, bile builds up in the blood. You also need to think about other factors that treatment involves, such as travelling to and from hospital.
The oil or foam cuts off most of the blood flow to the liver, which cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tumour. Then fluid can leak out and collect in the abdomen or in other parts of the body, such as the feet and ankles. Your individual outlook depends on many factors including whether the cancer has spread to more than one part of your body, how quickly it is growing, and how it responds to treatment. Moreover, with the advances in medical science the survival rates in liver cancer patients are improving with every decade. If you start treatment, you can stop whenever you want to if you are finding it too much to cope with. The chemotherapy mixture also stays in the area of the tumour for some time and so the cancer cells are exposed to a high dose of the treatment. Lo, Kiang-Hiong Tay, Teong-Guan Lim, Mihir Gandhi, Say-Beng Tan, Khee-Chee Soo, and Group for the Asia-Pacific Hepatocellular Carcinoma Trials. It has many functions which include: Storing glycogen (fuel for the body) which is made from sugars. When required, glycogen is broken down into glucose which is released into the bloodstream. The scar tissue can also affect the blood flow through the liver which can cause back pressure in the blood vessels which bring blood to the liver.
In the UK the most common causes are heavy alcohol drinking and infection with the hepatitis C virus. It is not clear why some people are more prone to their liver cells becoming damaged by alcohol and to developing cirrhosis. Worldwide, this is the most common cause of cirrhosis (but alcohol and hepatitis C are the most common causes in the UK). For example, primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, and congenital problems of the bile ducts. This is a condition which causes an abnormal build-up of iron in the liver and other parts of the body.
As the cirrhosis becomes worse, this causes back pressure in the portal vein (known as portal hypertension). The portal vein is the vein that takes blood from the gut to the liver - it contains digested foods. Increased pressure in this vein can cause swellings (varices) to develop in the branches of the vein in the lining of the oesophagus (gullet) and stomach. For example: Adequate food intake (including calories and protein) and regular exercise are important to prevent excessive weight loss and muscle wasting. Seek medical help immediately if you have cirrhosis and you vomit blood, or pass blood in your faeces, or if your faeces become black. Various surgical techniques can be used to stop the bleeding and to help reduce the risk of further bleeds.
Some research suggests that medicines may be able to be developed that can reverse the scarring process. Stem-cell or liver cell transplantation aimed at restoring liver function is also being investigated. The most important way to prevent cirrhosis from developing is to drink within the recommended safe limits. That is: Men should drink no more than 21 units of alcohol per week, no more than four units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week. If they do choose to drink, to minimise the risk to the baby, they should not drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol once or twice a week and should not get drunk". And if you do drink more heavily than this on any day, allow 48 alcohol-free hours afterwards to let your body recover. For example, one study found that more than two units a day for men and more than one unit a day for women significantly increases the risk of developing certain cancers.
A unit of alcohol is about equal to: A half-pint of normal-strength beer, cider, or lager.
But, you should not drink alcohol at all if you have already developed early cirrhosis or you have chronic hepatitis or certain other liver problems.
If you have cirrhosis, you have an increased risk of developing cancer of the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma). The greatest risk is with cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C infection, followed by cirrhosis caused by hereditary haemochromatosis. If you have cirrhosis, you should have regular checks to make sure that there are no signs of liver cancer developing.



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