11.08.2015

Nature cancer review journal

Translocations involving c-MYC are shown as examples of the types of translocation seen in multiple myeloma. The aim of haematopoietic gene therapy is to insert a drug resistance (DR) vector into the chromosomal DNA of haematopoietic stem cells.
As with many epithelial malignancies, prostate carcinoma is thought to arise as a multistep process with progression stages that include precancerous lesions defined as proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). AMPK suppresses mTOR-dependent transcriptional regulators (such as cyclin D1 and MYC) to inhibit cell growth and tumorigenesis.
In most tumour models, it is predominantly (70–80%) the granulocytic subset of MDSCs that expands. Because stem cells are pluripotent, all blood lineages will contain the drug-resistance gene, and protection will occur at all developmental stages of haematopoiesis (stem cells, myeloid and lymphoid progenitors, precursors and mature peripheral blood cells).
The development of carcinoma is followed by locally invasive disease and the subsequent dissemination of tumour cells to distant sites. Two mTORC1-regulated transcription factors involved in cell growth are the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and HIF1. We suggest that the granulocytic subset of MDSCs has increased activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and NADPH, which results in high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but low nitric oxide (NO) production.


Furthermore, because stem cells can undergo self-renewal (broken arrow), they create more stem cells that carry the drug-resistance gene. To facilitate these events, molecular alterations in the tumour cell and host environment occur that mediate specific biochemical processes such as androgen-independent growth and angiogenesis (brown boxes). The HIF subunits are stabilized through the hypoxic inactivation of the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) E3 ligase that targets them for destruction80. ROS and, in particular, peroxynitrite (the product of a chemical reaction between superoxide anion and NO) induces the post-translational modification of T-cell receptors and may cause antigen-specific T-cell unresponsiveness. The repositioning of an oncogene next to CH on der(14) is characteristic of primary translocations in multiple myeloma, but also occurs in some secondary translocations in multiple myeloma. Nutrient and botanical compounds have been shown to modulate several of these crucial biochemical reactions, and so might alter the progression rates of prostate neoplasia (purple boxes).
However, HIF1 protein levels are highly dependent on mTORC1 signalling, and mTORC1 hyperactivation from mutations in oncogenes (shown in yellow) and tumour suppressors (shown in blue) are sufficient to increase HIF1 protein levels. The monocytic MDSC subset has upregulated expression of STAT1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and increased levels of NO but low ROS production.
Oesophageal adenocarcinomas — which are a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus, and are inversely related to the presence of H.


The other translocations shown represent additional, secondary, progression events in multiple myeloma. Conditions that lower intracellular ATP levels; for example, low glycolytic rates from low glucose concentrations or inhibitors, such as 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), or oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors, such as metformin and related biguanides (shown in purple), will lead to activation of AMPK in a liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent manner. NO, which is produced by the metabolism of L-arginine by iNOS, suppresses T-cell function through various different mechanisms that involve the inhibition of Janus kinase 3 and STAT5, the inhibition of MHC class II expression and the induction of T-cell apoptosis. Aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) is a precursor of zinc metalloproteinase (ZMP), which acts as an AMP mimetic and is thought to directly bind the AMP-binding pockets of the AMPK subunit. Both subsets have increased levels of arginase 1, which causes T-cell suppression through depletion of L-arginine. A769662 is the only known small molecule that directly binds AMPK, inducing its activity, although it is not currently known at which region the compound binds on the AMPK heterotrimer.
In addition to simple reciprocal translocations with c-MYC on chromosome 8, the 3' C enhancer (C) on chromosome 22 can also be involved in the same types of complex translocation as seen for IgH.



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