28.01.2014

Medicine for eye cancer uk

Due to muscular weakness, the affected person may have breathing difficulty, problem in walking and climbing stairs, difficulty in talking, difficulty in eating and swallowing, problems in lifting objects, problems in changing position and choking problems.
The disorder will gradually cause weakness in skeletal muscles restricting every movement of the person.
Your medical practitioner will conduct physical examination and also consult neurologist for checking reflex reaction and muscular weakness.
Giving treatment will improve the functionalities of the affected person and prevent remission. Problems with vision can be corrected and orthopedic appliances can be used for increasing mobility. Prescribed medicines include pyridostigimine and prednisone for clearing the blockage in nerve signals and to suppress the autoimmune disorder.
No one may use these photographs for financial gain without written authorization from the contributor. In the developing world, health care providers often don’t have access to diagnostic technologies like the automated lab tests taken for granted in the resource-rich United States.
That’s a tough situation when you’re, say, trying to assess whether a patient is having liver toxicity from a drug, such as drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and HIV.
For the past four years, Nira Pollock, MD, PhD, associate medical director of the Infectious Diseases Diagnostics Lab at Boston Children’s Hospital, has been working with Diagnostics For All (DFA), a nonprofit organization based in Cambridge, Mass., to develop and test a low-cost diagnostic device that works on the spot, involving just a finger-stick and a square of paper. The result is a multilayered paper device that splits a small blood sample into streams, allowing multiple tests to be done at once without the need for multiple finger-sticks—at a cost of pennies per test. Readouts take approximately 15 minutes: the paper in the detection zones changes color to indicate results, which can be matched by eye with a range of expected colors on a chart.


DFA and Pollock’s test, evaluating liver function, may emerge as the first clinical diagnostic of this kind. In a study published in Science Translational Medicine last fall, funded in part by the Boston-based Center for Integration of Medicine and Innovative Technology (CIMIT), Pollock and her DFA colleagues tested the device using 223 blood samples obtained by venipuncture and 10 finger-stick samples from healthy volunteers. In a pilot finger-stick study last summer in Vietnam, funded by PATH (Seattle, Wash.), Pollock and collaborators trained nurses to perform the test and interpret the color changes on the devices.
With those findings, they’re tweaking and optimizing the paper test and planning a follow-up finger-stick study to take place this summer in collaboration with colleagues from the BIDMC Liver Center and Infectious Diseases clinics, supported in part by another CIMIT grant.
A big question in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, she notes, is “how accurate does the test have to be in order to be useful?” Even if the paper test doesn’t perform as well as the gold standard, it could still have a big impact on global health; in equivocal cases, venipuncture samples could still be sent for automated testing.
Tests like CT scan, MRI scan, acetylcholine receptor antibodies test, and nerve conduction testing are done, depending on the seriousness of the problem.
Specimens often have to be sent to a distant central lab, and it can be weeks before an answer wends its way back. By the time the results come back and indicate you need to stop or switch medications, the patient may be long gone, unable to travel back to the clinic. The technology is all in the paper square—using wax printing and microfluidics techniques initially developed by DFA’s founder, George Whitesides, PhD, of Harvard University. With eradication of TB and HIV as a global priority from the World Health Organization, liver toxicity from regimens used to treat these diseases is important to detect and address. The test allowed visual measurements of AST and ALT, in both whole blood and serum, that could be placed into three standard readout categories (AST or ALT less than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN), three to five times the ULN and more than five times the ULN)—with more than 90 percent accuracy.
In this collaboration between PATH, BIDMC, DFA, the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Vietnam and the Harvard Medical School AIDS Initiative in Vietnam, the team looked at factors like ease of interpretation, consistency of results and lot-to-lot variability.


The team will also test transmitting pictures of the devices (taken by cellphone cameras) to a remote reader.
The patient with this disorder should not go out in hot sunlight and avoid stressful situations, which will worsen the problem. In severe cases, plasmapheresis is given for removing defective antibodies which gives wrong signals and is replaced with good blood plasma.
Getty Images reserves the right to pursue unauthorized users of this image or clip, and to seek damages for copyright violations. The paper test measures levels of enzymes like AST and ALT, which are good indicators of liver damage. Some say that this disorder occurs due to autoimmune disorder, in which the immune system of the person attacks the healthy tissue by mistake, causing weakness in muscles and nerves. In this process, the body produces antibodies which block the nerve signals causing problems in transmitting commands from the nerve cells.
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