Macmillan cancer treatment chemotherapy

If you have stage 2 or stage 3 bladder cancer, you may be offered radiotherapy with the aim of curing the cancer.
Radiotherapy is given in the hospital radiotherapy department as a series of short daily treatments. At the beginning of each session of radiotherapy, the radiographer will position you carefully on the couch and make sure you’re comfortable. Radiotherapy to the bladder area may irritate the bowel and cause diarrhoea and soreness around the anus (opening of the bowel to the outside). These are generally mild, but perfumed soaps, creams or deodorants may irritate the skin and should not be used during treatment. During your treatment, you’ll need to rest more than usual, especially if you have to travel a long way for treatment each day. Once your treatment is over, gradually increase your activity and try to balance rest periods with exercise, such as walking.
In women, radiotherapy to the pelvis can narrow the vagina, which can make sex difficult or uncomfortable. One of the best ways of overcoming this problem is to start having sex regularly as soon as you feel ready.
The blood vessels in the bowel and bladder can become more fragile, and if this happens, blood appears in the urine or in bowel movements. If the cancer has spread outside your bladder to other parts of your body, you may be given radiotherapy to treat the symptoms. If you’re having symptoms in your bladder, such as pain or bleeding, radiotherapy may be used to relieve them. Macmillan Cancer Support, registered charity in England and Wales (261017), Scotland (SC039907) and the Isle of Man (604). More than 170,000 people in the UK who were diagnosed with cancer in the 1970s are still alive, a report by Macmillan Cancer Support shows.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. People who have a chronic inflammatory bowel condition, known as ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of developing this type of cancer.
At the hospital, the doctor will ask you about your general health and any previous medical problems.
A CT scan takes a series of x-rays that build up a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body. You may be given a drink or injection of a dye that allows particular areas to be seen more clearly. This test is similar to a CT scan but uses magnetism, instead of x-rays, to build up a detailed picture of areas of your body.
Before having the scan, you’ll be asked to remove any metal belongings, including jewellery. Your stomach and the first part of your small bowel (duodenum) need to be empty for this test.

You’re given an injection to relax you (a sedative) and a local anaesthetic spray to numb your throat.
The doctor looks down the endoscope to find the opening where the bile duct and pancreatic duct drain into the duodenum.
The doctor will numb an area on the right side of your tummy (abdomen) with a local anaesthetic injection.
The results of the previous tests may make your doctor strongly suspect that you have cancer of the bile duct, but the only way to be sure is by having a biopsy. The surgeon makes a cut (incision) in your abdomen to examine the bile duct and the tissue around it for cancer. The stage of a cancer is a term used to describe its size and whether it has spread beyond its original site.
The cancer is affecting the main blood vessels that take blood to and from the liver, or it has spread into the small or large bowel, the stomach or the abdominal wall. The treatment you have will depend on the position and size of the cancer, whether it has spread beyond the bile duct and your general health. If the cancer is at a very early stage (stage 1), only the bile ducts containing the cancer are removed. If it isn't possible to remove the tumour, you may have an operation to relieve the blockage. The surgeon operates to create a bypass of the blocked part of the bile duct, so the bile can flow from the liver into the intestine. If a part of the small bowel called the duodenum is blocked, it can cause sickness (vomiting).
Radiotherapy treats cancer by using high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells, while doing as little harm as possible to normal cells. Chemotherapy may occasionally be used after surgery if all the cancer couldn't be removed by the operation. Many people find it helpful to talk things over with their doctor or nurse, or with one of our cancer support specialists. The larynx can be seen or felt as the lump in the front of the neck known as the Adam’s apple. This means the cancer starts in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) of the lining of the larynx.
Some people have chemotherapy at the same time as radiotherapy to help make radiotherapy more effective.
During your treatment you’ll be alone in the room, but you can talk to the radiographer, who will watch you from the next room.
This treatment is often given as three sessions over a week, usually on alternate days (on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, for example).
There are a number of risk factors that can increase your risk of developing bile duct cancer. This causes bile to flow back into the blood and body tissues, and the skin and whites of the eyes to become yellow (jaundice).

You'll usually be asked not to eat or drink anything for at least six hours before the scan. They will then pass a thin needle through the skin into your liver and inject a dye into the bile duct within the liver. The bile duct is very close to large blood vessels, which carry blood to and from the liver. It may also be used if an operation isn't possible or the cancer has come back (recurred) after initial treatment.
It sits where the throat divides into the trachea (the windpipe that takes air to and from the lungs) and the oesophagus (the tube that food goes down when you eat).
There are also rarer types of laryngeal cancer including sarcomas, lymphomas, adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas. For information about the rarer types of laryngeal cancer, contact our cancer support specialists. However, if the cancer comes back later on you may still need to have your bladder removed.
On your first visit to the radiotherapy department, you’ll be asked to have a CT scan or lie under a machine called a simulator, which takes x-rays of the area to be treated.
It also causes the urine to become a dark yellow colour and stools (bowel motions) to look pale. CT scans use small amounts of radiation, which is very unlikely to hurt you or anyone you come in contact with. The narrowing is stretched using dilators (small inflatable balloons), and the stent is inserted through the endoscope so that the bile can drain. The aim of chemotherapy treatment is to try to shrink or slow down the growth of the cancer and to relieve symptoms. Marks are usually drawn on your skin to help the radiographer (who gives you your treatment) position you accurately and to show where the rays will be directed. During the test you will be asked to lie very still on a couch inside a long cylinder (tube) for about 30 minutes. One end of the catheter is in the bile duct and the other stays outside the body connected to a bag, which collects the bile. You may need antibiotic treatment and your specialist may advise that the stent be replaced.
These marks must stay visible throughout your treatment, and about three permanent marks (like tiny tattoos) may be used. It's painless but can be slightly uncomfortable, and some people feel a bit claustrophobic during the scan. This is to help with the insertion of the stent or, sometimes, to enable x-rays to be taken to check the position of the stent after it has been put in place.

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